Tabulata

Tabulate corals
Subclass Tabulata Milne-Edwards et Haime, 1850

et: põhik-korallid; sv: tabulater; fi: levykorallit;

Taxon ID: 47 / 2014-01-09
Belongs to: Anthozoa
Sister taxa: Octocorallia | Rugosa
Contains: Chaetetida | Tetradiida | Sarcinulida | Favositida | Heliolitida | Auloporida
Stratigraphic range: Ordovician Permian | ~ 488,3–251,0 Ma
Baltoscandian species (in database): 332

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Acidolites asteriscus | Vormsi Stage → Adavere Stage
  2. Acidolites bersiniensis | Katian
  3. Acidolites insequens | Hirnantian
  4. Acidolites lateseptatus | Juuru Stage
  5. Acidolites medialis | Vormsi Stage
  6. Acidolites schmidti | Vormsi Stage
  7. Acidolites tumulosus | Katian
  8. Adaverina acclinis | Adavere Stage
  9. Adaverina adaverensis | Adavere Stage
  10. Alveolites suborbicularis | Ludfordian
  11. Angopora hisingeri | Llandovery → Wenlock
  12. Angopora parva | Llandovery → Wenlock
  13. Aulopora amica | Ludlow
  14. Aulopora assueta | Adavere Stage
  15. Aulopora celsa | Adavere Stage
  16. Aulopora enodis | Jaagarahu Stage
  17. Aulopora necopina | Kaugatuma Stage
  18. Barrandeolites bowerbanki | Jaagarahu Stage
  19. Barrandeolites lichenarioides | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  20. Calapoecia luhai | Pirgu Stage
  21. Catenipora approximata | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  22. Catenipora arctica | Juuru Stage → Llandovery
  23. Catenipora arctiformis | Wenlock
  24. Catenipora carlsoensis | Wenlock
  25. Catenipora copulata | Raikküla Stage
  26. Catenipora crassa | Silurian
  27. Catenipora distans | Llandovery → Wenlock
  28. Catenipora elegans | Adavere Stage
  29. Catenipora escharoides | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  30. Catenipora exilis | Adavere Stage
  31. Catenipora gotlandica | Llandovery
  32. Catenipora hedei | Wenlock
  33. Catenipora heintzi | Sheinwoodian
  34. Catenipora immemorata | Jaani Stage
  35. Catenipora jarviki | Wenlock
  36. Catenipora llandoverensis | Llandovery
  37. Catenipora malmoeyensis | Llandovery
  38. Catenipora martinssoni | Juuru Stage
  39. Catenipora maxima | Llandovery
  40. Catenipora minuta | Silurian
  41. Catenipora monstruosa |
  42. Catenipora norvegica | Llandovery
  43. Catenipora obliqua | Nabala Stage → Pirgu Stage
  44. Catenipora oriens | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  45. Catenipora panga | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  46. Catenipora quadrata | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  47. Catenipora quadtrataeformis | Llandovery
  48. Catenipora regnelli | Wenlock
  49. Catenipora ringerikensis | Llandovery → Wenlock
  50. Catenipora rubraeformis | Pirgu Stage
  51. Catenipora septosa | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  52. Catenipora spiroddensis | Llandovery
  53. Catenipora tapaensis | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  54. Catenipora tractabilis | Pirgu Stage
  55. Catenipora vespertina | Jaani Stage
  56. Catenipora wrighti | Vormsi Stage
  57. Chaetetes hemisphaericus | Haljala Stage
  58. Chaetetes pyriformis | Volkhov Stage → Kunda Stage
  59. Cladopora perrara | Jaagarahu Stage
  60. Coenites hennigi | Ludlow
  61. Coenites juniperinus | Adavere Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  62. Coenites labrosus |
  63. Coenites linnaei | upper Silurian
  64. Cosmiolithus halysitoides | Wenlock
  65. Cosmiolithus ornatus |
  66. Cryptolichenaria multiplex | Pirgu Stage
  67. Cystihalysites blakewayensis | Wenlock → Ludlow
  68. Cystihalysites cavernosus | Wenlock
  69. Cystihalysites magnitubus | Wenlock → Ludlow
  70. Desmidopora alveolaris | Wenlock
  71. Diploepora grayi | Vormsi Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  72. Diploepora ramosa | Katian
  73. Eocatenipora nicholsoni | Upper Ordovician
  74. Eocatenipora parallela | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  75. Eocatenipora vormsiensis | Pirgu Stage
  76. Eofletcheria incerta | Keila Stage → Oandu Stage
  77. Eofletcheria irregularis | Ordovician
  78. Eofletcheria orvikui | Oandu Stage
  79. Eolaminoplasma rosa | Ludlow
  80. Favosites abnormis | Adavere Stage
  81. Favosites adaverensis | Adavere Stage
  82. Favosites antiquus | Juuru Stage
  83. Favosites caelestis | Rootsiküla Stage
  84. Favosites desolatus | Jaani Stage
  85. Favosites effusus | Kaugatuma Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  86. Favosites eichwaldi | Kaugatuma Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  87. Favosites exilis | Jaani Stage
  88. Favosites fallax | Adavere Stage
  89. Favosites favosiformis | Adavere Stage
  90. Favosites favosus | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  91. Favosites forbesi | Raikküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  92. Favosites gothlandicus | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  93. Favosites hisingeri | Raikküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  94. Favosites humilis | Ohesaare Stage
  95. Favosites ingens | Raikküla Stage → Adavere Stage
  96. Favosites jaaniensis | Jaani Stage
  97. Favosites kalevi | Adavere Stage
  98. Favosites kogulaensis | Paadla Stage
  99. Favosites mirandus | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  100. Favosites multicarinatus | Jaani Stage
  101. Favosites norvegicus | Llandovery
  102. Favosites obliquus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  103. Favosites oculiporoides | Jaani Stage
  104. Favosites opinabilis | Ludlow
  105. Favosites praemaximus | Raikküla Stage
  106. Favosites privatus | Raikküla Stage
  107. Favosites pseudoforbesi | Paadla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  108. Favosites pseudoforbesi muratsiensis | Ludlow
  109. Favosites pseudoforbesi ohesaarensis | Ohesaare Stage
  110. Favosites pseudoforbesi pseudoforbesi | Paadla Stage
  111. Favosites serratus | Jaani Stage
  112. Favosites similis | Rootsiküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  113. Favosites stoermeri | Telychian
  114. Favosites subfavosus | Raikküla Stage
  115. Favosites subforbesi | Wenlock
  116. Favosites subgothlandicus | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  117. Favosites terrae-novae | Kaugatuma Stage
  118. Favosites vectorius | Ohesaare Stage
  119. Favosites vicinalis | Kaugatuma Stage
  120. Halysites catenularius | Juuru Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  121. Halysites crassus | Silurian
  122. Halysites junior | Jaagarahu Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  123. Halysites klintebergensis | Ludlow
  124. Halysites labyrinthicus | Silurian
  125. Halysites laticatenatus | Sheinwoodian → Gorstian
  126. Halysites norvegicus | Telychian → Sheinwoodian
  127. Halysites priscus |
  128. Halysites senior | Jaani Stage → Paadla Stage
  129. Heliolites baltica | Ludlow
  130. Heliolites daintreei | Adavere Stage → Paadla Stage
  131. Heliolites interstinctus | Adavere Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  132. Heliolites megastoma | Homerian
  133. Heliolites spongodes |
  134. Heliolites subdecipiens | Ludlow
  135. Kiaerites norvegicus | Llandovery
  136. Kitakamiia callosa | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  137. Laceripora cribrosa | Paadla Stage
  138. Laminoplasma calyculata | Sheinwoodian → Homerian
  139. Lyopora favosa | Katian
  140. Lyopora tenuis | Katian
  141. Mastopora (tabulata) foederata | Jaagarahu Stage
  142. Mastopora (tabulata) incrustata | Jaani Stage
  143. Mesofavosites alveolitoides | Jaani Stage
  144. Mesofavosites bonus | Jaani Stage
  145. Mesofavosites densus | Jaani Stage
  146. Mesofavosites fleximurinus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  147. Mesofavosites fortis | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  148. Mesofavosites imbellis | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  149. Mesofavosites inferior | Juuru Stage
  150. Mesofavosites kiltsiensis | Juuru Stage
  151. Mesofavosites major | Jaani Stage
  152. Mesofavosites multiporus | Raikküla Stage
  153. Mesofavosites nikitini | Porkuni Stage
  154. Mesofavosites secundus | Wenlock
  155. Mesofavosites silicificatus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  156. Mesofavosites similis | Juuru Stage
  157. Mesofavosites validus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  158. Mesosolenia festiva | upper Silurian
  159. Multisolenia excelsa | Jaagarahu Stage
  160. Multisolenia frivola | Jaagarahu Stage
  161. Multisolenia reliqua | Kaugatuma Stage
  162. Multisolenia temperans | Raikküla Stage
  163. Multisolenia tortuosa | Raikküla Stage
  164. Multisolenia tortuosaeformis | Raikküla Stage → Adavere Stage
  165. Multithecopora norvegica | Llandovery
  166. Nodulipora acuminata | Wenlock
  167. Nyctopora parvotubulata | Ordovician
  168. Pachypora lamellicornis | Sheinwoodian
  169. Palaeofavosipora clausa | Wenlock
  170. Palaeoporites estonicus | Porkuni Stage
  171. Paleofavosites aaloei | Juuru Stage
  172. Paleofavosites abstrusus | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  173. Paleofavosites aliquantulus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  174. Paleofavosites alveolaris | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  175. Paleofavosites asper | Juuru Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  176. Paleofavosites balticus | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  177. Paleofavosites borealis | Vormsi Stage → Wenlock
  178. Paleofavosites collatatus | Jaagarahu Stage
  179. Paleofavosites corrugatus | Porkuni Stage
  180. Paleofavosites dagoensis | Juuru Stage
  181. Paleofavosites dualis | Porkuni Stage → Raikküla Stage
  182. Paleofavosites estonus | Pirgu Stage
  183. Paleofavosites felix | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  184. Paleofavosites finitimus | Paadla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  185. Paleofavosites forbesiformis | Juuru Stage → Jaani Stage
  186. Paleofavosites forbesiformis porosus | Wenlock
  187. Paleofavosites forbesiformis raritabulata | Juuru Stage
  188. Paleofavosites frivolus | Jaagarahu Stage
  189. Paleofavosites globosus | Porkuni Stage
  190. Paleofavosites gramineus | Porkuni Stage
  191. Paleofavosites haapsaluensis | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  192. Paleofavosites hirtus | Juuru Stage
  193. Paleofavosites hystrix | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  194. Paleofavosites ignotus | Juuru Stage
  195. Paleofavosites jaaniensis | Adavere Stage
  196. Paleofavosites juuru | Juuru Stage
  197. Paleofavosites kalvensis | Llandovery
  198. Paleofavosites karinuensis | Raikküla Stage
  199. Paleofavosites legibilis | Porkuni Stage
  200. Paleofavosites limbergensis | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  201. Paleofavosites luhai | Jaani Stage
  202. Paleofavosites luxuriosus | Adavere Stage
  203. Paleofavosites mirus | Llandovery
  204. Paleofavosites moribundus | Kuressaare Stage
  205. Paleofavosites mullochensis | Porkuni Stage
  206. Paleofavosites mysticus | Juuru Stage
  207. Paleofavosites nodosus | Wenlock
  208. Paleofavosites oelaensis | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  209. Paleofavosites optatus | Juuru Stage
  210. Paleofavosites parilis | Jaagarahu Stage
  211. Paleofavosites pauculus | Jaagarahu Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  212. Paleofavosites paulus | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  213. Paleofavosites pinnatus | Raikküla Stage
  214. Paleofavosites porkuniensis | Porkuni Stage
  215. Paleofavosites porosus | Juuru Stage
  216. Paleofavosites poulseni | Adavere Stage
  217. Paleofavosites primus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  218. Paleofavosites raikuelaensis | Raikküla Stage
  219. Paleofavosites rudis | Juuru Stage
  220. Paleofavosites rugosus | Porkuni Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  221. Paleofavosites saaremicus | Jaani Stage
  222. Paleofavosites schmidti | Vormsi Stage → Adavere Stage
  223. Paleofavosites secundus | Wenlock
  224. Paleofavosites septosus | Adavere Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  225. Paleofavosites suurikuensis | Jaani Stage
  226. Paleofavosites tenuis | Jaani Stage
  227. Paleofavosites tersus | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  228. Paleofavosites vetustus | Pirgu Stage
  229. Paleofavosites vexatus | Juuru Stage
  230. Paramongolites spiralis | Katian
  231. Parastriatopora celebrata | Raikküla Stage
  232. Parastriatopora commutabilis | Rootsiküla Stage
  233. Parastriatopora coreaniformis | Paadla Stage
  234. Parastriatopora mirifica | Raikküla Stage
  235. Parastriatopora priva | Jaagarahu Stage
  236. Placocoenites pellicula | Adavere Stage
  237. Planalveolites fougti | Sheinwoodian
  238. Plasmopora foroensis | Wenlock
  239. Plasmopora petalliformis | Wenlock
  240. Plasmopora scala | Telychian
  241. Plasmopora scita | Telychian → Homerian
  242. Plasmopora suprema | Ludlow
  243. Plasmoporella convexotabulata | Upper Ordovician
  244. Porkunites amalloides | Porkuni Stage
  245. Pragnellia arborescens | Upper Ordovician
  246. Priscosolenia perarmata | Porkuni Stage
  247. Priscosolenia prisca | Porkuni Stage
  248. Priscosolenia prisca occulta | Porkuni Stage
  249. Propora affinis | Katian → Aeronian
  250. Propora askerensis | Ordovician
  251. Propora bacillifera | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  252. Propora cancellata | Porkuni Stage
  253. Propora conferta | Porkuni Stage → Paadla Stage
  254. Propora euryacantha | Wenlock
  255. Propora exigua |
  256. Propora magna | Silurian
  257. Propora raricellata | Jaani Stage
  258. Propora reticulata | Telychian
  259. Propora speciosa | Upper Ordovician → Silurian
  260. Propora tubulata | Raikküla Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  261. Protaraea approximata | Vormsi Stage
  262. Protaraea bella | Vormsi Stage
  263. Protaraea diffluens | Oandu Stage
  264. Protaraea megastoma minor | Upper Ordovician
  265. Protaraea schmidtii | Pirgu Stage
  266. Protaraea ungerni | Upper Ordovician
  267. Protaraea vetusta |
  268. Protoheliolites dubius | Pirgu Stage
  269. Protoheliolites gracilis | Porkuni Stage
  270. Protoheliolites norvegicus | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  271. Pseudocosmiolithus varians | Porkuni Stage
  272. Pseudoplasmopora conspecta | Ludlow
  273. Pseudoplasmopora longisepta | Ludlow
  274. Pushkinites victori | Vormsi Stage
  275. Pycnolithus bifidus | lower Silurian
  276. Rhabdotetradium frutex | Porkuni Stage
  277. Riphaeolites lamelliformis | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  278. Romingeria nana | Adavere Stage
  279. Saaremolites inversus | Jaagarahu Stage
  280. Saaremolites kurzemensis | Ludlow
  281. Saffordophyllum grande | Oandu Stage
  282. Saffordophyllum kiaeri | Ordovician
  283. Saffordophyllum tulaensis | Oandu Stage
  284. Sarcinula lata | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  285. Sarcinula organum | Upper Ordovician
  286. Sarcinula partita | Pirgu Stage
  287. Sarcinula rakverense | Rakvere Stage
  288. Sarcinula venusta | Pirgu Stage
  289. Sinopora callosa | Adavere Stage
  290. Sinopora operta | Raikküla Stage
  291. Solenihalysites gotlandicus | Ludlow
  292. Sparsisolenia kiaeri | Llandovery
  293. Squameolites rudis | Llandovery → Ludlow
  294. Stelliporella fasciatus | Telychian
  295. Stelliporella liljevalli | Telychian
  296. Stelliporella parvistella | Vormsi Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  297. Stelliporella repletus | Sheinwoodian
  298. Striatopora calyculata | Jaani Stage
  299. Striatopora coenitoides | Jaagarahu Stage
  300. Striatopora flexuosa | Sheinwoodian
  301. Subalveolitella majuscula | Adavere Stage
  302. Subalveolitella minuscula | Adavere Stage
  303. Subalveolites eichwaldi | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  304. Subalveolites panderi | Llandovery → Wenlock
  305. Subalveolites sokolovi | Jaani Stage → Paadla Stage
  306. Syringoheliolites incognitus | Ludlow
  307. Syringoheliolites ludlovicus | Ludlow
  308. Syringolites kunthianus | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  309. Syringopora affabilis | Paadla Stage
  310. Syringopora bifurcata | Silurian
  311. Syringopora blanda | Raikküla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  312. Syringopora lindstroemi | Llandovery → Wenlock
  313. Syringopora multifaria | Paadla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  314. Syringopora novella | Llandovery → Wenlock
  315. Syringopora schmidti | Paadla Stage
  316. Thamnopora cervicornis | Emsian → Frasnian
  317. Thamnopora undvaensis | Jaani Stage
  318. Thecia confluens | Jaagarahu Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  319. Thecia estonica | Jaagarahu Stage
  320. Thecia fruticosa | Jaagarahu Stage
  321. Thecia podolica | Jaani Stage
  322. Thecia saaremica | Jaagarahu Stage
  323. Thecia swinderniana | Paadla Stage
  324. Thecia tenuicula | Jaani Stage
  325. Trochiscolithus micraster | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  326. Trochiscolithus rigidus | Pirgu Stage
  327. Urceopora furcata | Vormsi Stage
  328. Vacupora kaljoi | Raikküla Stage
  329. Visbylites stella | Juuru Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  330. Vishkilites heiolitoides | Hirnantian
  331. Wormsipora hirsuta | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  332. Wormsipora miranda | Vormsi Stage

Taxon overview

Introduction

 

Tabulates, subclass or order Tabulata, are extinct corals of anthozoans. Tabulates, unlike rugosans, were always colonial organisms. They have simple calcareous skeleton, colonies consisting of prismatic or tube-like corallites communicating by mural pores or pore channels or tunnels. Polyps lived inside corallites as chambers with base-like tabulae below and septal spines or laminar septa on sides protruding from the corallite wall. Tabulate corals are taxonomically complicated because of their simplicity.  Favositids are characterized by closely packed corallites with mural-pores and their morphology is so variable that it differs even within a colony. Heliolitids are more complicated because of their coenenchymal tissue between corallites, which consists of tiny tubes - tubuli or wavy dissepiments. Halysitids are similar with having often coenenchyme, but their corallites are enclosed into ranks of various shape and size. Syringoporids form fasciculate colonies consisting of tubes having little space around and being connected by pore tunnels. Auloporids are reptant forms encrusting other organisms, as a small horny network.      

 

Occurrence

 

Tabulate corals occurred in the Ordovician Period of America and Siberia, much earlier than in Baltoscandia. The first appearances of tabulates Lyopora, Eoflecheria, Saffordophyllum and Protaraea in Baltica are known from the level of the Oandu Stage. Estonia is rich in Ordovician and Silurian tabulates, which are easy to find in localities of Hiiumaa, Vormsi and Saaremaa. Quarries in mainland are nice places to observe tabulates in their living position.

 

Investigation methods

 

Tabulates are large, but their finer taxonomy is observed only from peels and thin-sections. Normally pair of thin-sections is made from transverse and vertical directions of colony growth. Peel is an acetate replica from the polished and etched surface of the colony cut. Thin-sections are thin pieces of colonies, clued to glass and grinded down until 50 microns. Their scanned and photographed images are investigated later by using different software.

 

Role in geology

 

Tabulates are sessile organisms which preferred only shallow seas and are not mush useful in stratigraphy. They were spread on ancient oceans sporadically or formed bioherms or biostromes. Together with strtomatoporoids, rugosans and other fossils in the same community, they are informative in palaeoecology.  Sedimentological processes are readable also from the shape and growth details of such organisms.

 

Selection of related publications

  • Zatoń et al., 2016. A new microconchid species from the Silurian of Baltica [DOI]
  • Kershaw & Mõtus, 2016 . Palaeoecology of corals and stromatoporoids in a late Silurian biostrome in Estonia [DOI]
  • Liang et al., 2013. Growth characteristics of Protoheliolites norvegicus (Tabulata; Upper Ordovician; Estonia) [DOI]
  • Mõtus & Zaika, 2012. The oldest heliolitids from the early Katian of the East Baltic region
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2012a. New endobiotic cornulitid and Cornulites sp. aff. Cornulites celatus (Cornulitida, Tentaculita) from the Katian of Vormsi Island, Estonia [DOI]
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2012b. Diverse early endobiotic coral symbiont assemblage from the Katian (Late Ordovician) of Baltica [DOI]
  • Mõtus & Vinn, 2009. The worm endosymbionts in tabulate corals from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine [DOI]
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2008. The earliest endosymbiotic mineralized tubeworms from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine
  • Mõtus & Hints, O., 2007. 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. Excursion B2: Lower Paleozoic geology and corals of Estonia. Excursion Guidebook
  • Mõtus & Grytsenko, 2007. Morphological variation of the tabulate coral Paleofavosites cf. collatatus Klaamann, 1961 from the Silurian of the Bagovichka River localities, Podolia (Ukraine) [DOI]
  • Mõtus, 2006. Intraspecific variation in Wenlock tabulate corals from Saaremaa (Estonia) and its taxonomic implications
  • Kershaw et al., 2006. Stromatoporoid response to muddy substrates in Silurian limestones
  • Jeppsson et al., 2005. Locality descriptions
  • Young & Kershaw, 2005. Classification and controls of internal banding in Palaeozoic stromatoporoids and colonial corals
  • Mõtus & Sandström, 2005. Cystihalysites sp. and its significance to biostratigraphy and event stratigraphy in the Ludlow (Late Silurian) of Gotland, Sweden
  • Mõtus, 2004. Tabulate corals from the Lower Silurian of Jämtland (Sweden)
  • Mõtus, 2001. Environment related morphological variation in Early Silurian tabulate corals from the Baltic area
  • Nestor, H. et al., 2001. Description of the type section, cyclicity, and correlation of the Riksu Formation (Wenlock, Estonia)
  • Mõtus & Klaamann, 1999. The halysitid coral genera Halysites and Cystihalysites from Gotland, Sweden
  • Dixon, 1996. Heliolitine corals of the upper Douro Formation (upper Silurian), Canadian Arctic Islands.
  • Bondarenko, 1992. The system of heliolitoids
  • Young & Scrutton, 1991. Growth form in Silurian heliolitid corals: the influence of genetics and environment.
  • Klaamann, 1984a. Heliolitidis in the East Baltic Late Silurian coral communities
  • Klaamann, 1983. The Tabulate corals of Jaani and Jaagarahu Stages (Wenlockian, Estonia) and their Biozones