Tabulata

Tabulate corals
Subclass Tabulata Milne-Edwards et Haime, 1850

et: põhik-korallid; sv: tabulater; fi: levykorallit;

Taxon ID: 47 / 2014-01-09
Belongs to: Anthozoa
Sister taxa: Octocorallia | Rugosa
Contains: Chaetetida | Tetradiida | Sarcinulida | Favositida | Heliolitida | Auloporida
Stratigraphic range: Ordovician Permian | ~ 488,3–251,0 Ma
Baltoscandian species (in database): 334

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Acidolites asteriscus | Vormsi Stage → Adavere Stage
  2. Acidolites bersiniensis | Katian
  3. Acidolites insequens | Hirnantian
  4. Acidolites lateseptatus | Juuru Stage
  5. Acidolites medialis | Vormsi Stage
  6. Acidolites schmidti | Vormsi Stage
  7. Acidolites tumulosus | Katian
  8. Adaverina acclinis | Adavere Stage
  9. Adaverina adaverensis | Adavere Stage
  10. Alveolites suborbicularis | Ludfordian
  11. Angopora hisingeri | Llandovery → Wenlock
  12. Angopora parva | Llandovery → Wenlock
  13. Aulopora amica | Ludlow
  14. Aulopora assueta | Adavere Stage
  15. Aulopora celsa | Adavere Stage
  16. Aulopora enodis | Jaagarahu Stage
  17. Aulopora necopina | Kaugatuma Stage
  18. Barrandeolites bowerbanki | Jaagarahu Stage
  19. Barrandeolites lichenarioides | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  20. Calapoecia luhai | Pirgu Stage
  21. Catenipora approximata | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  22. Catenipora arctica | Juuru Stage → Llandovery
  23. Catenipora arctiformis | Wenlock
  24. Catenipora carlsoensis | Wenlock
  25. Catenipora copulata | Raikküla Stage
  26. Catenipora crassa | Silurian
  27. Catenipora distans | Llandovery → Wenlock
  28. Catenipora elegans | Adavere Stage
  29. Catenipora escharoides | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  30. Catenipora exilis | Adavere Stage
  31. Catenipora gotlandica | Llandovery
  32. Catenipora hedei | Wenlock
  33. Catenipora heintzi | Sheinwoodian
  34. Catenipora immemorata | Jaani Stage
  35. Catenipora jarviki | Wenlock
  36. Catenipora llandoverensis | Llandovery
  37. Catenipora malmoeyensis | Llandovery
  38. Catenipora martinssoni | Juuru Stage
  39. Catenipora maxima | Llandovery
  40. Catenipora minuta | Silurian
  41. Catenipora monstruosa |
  42. Catenipora norvegica | Llandovery
  43. Catenipora obliqua | Nabala Stage → Pirgu Stage
  44. Catenipora oriens | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  45. Catenipora panga | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  46. Catenipora quadrata | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  47. Catenipora quadtrataeformis | Llandovery
  48. Catenipora regnelli | Wenlock
  49. Catenipora ringerikensis | Llandovery → Wenlock
  50. Catenipora rubraeformis | Pirgu Stage
  51. Catenipora septosa | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  52. Catenipora spiroddensis | Llandovery
  53. Catenipora tapaensis | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  54. Catenipora tractabilis | Pirgu Stage
  55. Catenipora vespertina | Jaani Stage
  56. Catenipora wrighti | Vormsi Stage
  57. Chaetetes hemisphaericus | Haljala Stage
  58. Chaetetes pyriformis | Volkhov Stage → Kunda Stage
  59. Cladopora perrara | Jaagarahu Stage
  60. Coenites hennigi | Ludlow
  61. Coenites juniperinus | Adavere Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  62. Coenites labrosus |
  63. Coenites linnaei | upper Silurian
  64. Cosmiolithus halysitoides | Wenlock
  65. Cosmiolithus ornatus |
  66. Cryptolichenaria multiplex | Pirgu Stage
  67. Cystihalysites blakewayensis | Wenlock → Ludlow
  68. Cystihalysites cavernosus | Wenlock
  69. Cystihalysites magnitubus | Wenlock → Ludlow
  70. Desmidopora alveolaris | Wenlock
  71. Diploepora grayi | Vormsi Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  72. Diploepora ramosa | Katian
  73. Eocatenipora nicholsoni | Upper Ordovician
  74. Eocatenipora parallela | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  75. Eocatenipora vormsiensis | Pirgu Stage
  76. Eofletcheria incerta | Keila Stage → Oandu Stage
  77. Eofletcheria irregularis | Ordovician
  78. Eofletcheria orvikui | Oandu Stage
  79. Eolaminoplasma rosa | Ludlow
  80. Favosites abnormis | Adavere Stage
  81. Favosites adaverensis | Adavere Stage
  82. Favosites antiquus | Juuru Stage
  83. Favosites caelestis | Rootsiküla Stage
  84. Favosites desolatus | Jaani Stage
  85. Favosites effusus | Kaugatuma Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  86. Favosites eichwaldi | Kaugatuma Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  87. Favosites exilis | Jaani Stage
  88. Favosites fallax | Adavere Stage
  89. Favosites favosiformis | Adavere Stage
  90. Favosites favosus | Raikküla Stage → Jaani Stage
  91. Favosites forbesi | Raikküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  92. Favosites gothlandicus | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  93. Favosites hisingeri | Raikküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  94. Favosites humilis | Ohesaare Stage
  95. Favosites ingens | Raikküla Stage → Adavere Stage
  96. Favosites jaaniensis | Jaani Stage
  97. Favosites kalevi | Adavere Stage
  98. Favosites kogulaensis | Paadla Stage
  99. Favosites mirandus | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  100. Favosites multicarinatus | Jaani Stage
  101. Favosites norvegicus | Llandovery
  102. Favosites obliquus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  103. Favosites oculiporoides | Jaani Stage
  104. Favosites opinabilis | Ludlow
  105. Favosites praemaximus | Raikküla Stage
  106. Favosites privatus | Raikküla Stage
  107. Favosites pseudoforbesi | Paadla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  108. Favosites pseudoforbesi muratsiensis | Ludlow
  109. Favosites pseudoforbesi ohesaarensis | Ohesaare Stage
  110. Favosites pseudoforbesi pseudoforbesi | Paadla Stage
  111. Favosites serratus | Jaani Stage
  112. Favosites similis | Rootsiküla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  113. Favosites stoermeri | Telychian
  114. Favosites subfavosus | Raikküla Stage
  115. Favosites subforbesi | Wenlock
  116. Favosites subgothlandicus | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  117. Favosites terrae-novae | Kaugatuma Stage
  118. Favosites vectorius | Ohesaare Stage
  119. Favosites vicinalis | Kaugatuma Stage
  120. Halysites catenularius | Juuru Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  121. Halysites crassus | Silurian
  122. Halysites junior | Jaagarahu Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  123. Halysites klintebergensis | Ludlow
  124. Halysites labyrinthicus | Silurian
  125. Halysites laticatenatus | Sheinwoodian → Gorstian
  126. Halysites norvegicus | Telychian → Sheinwoodian
  127. Halysites priscus |
  128. Halysites senior | Jaani Stage → Paadla Stage
  129. Heliolites baltica | Ludlow
  130. Heliolites daintreei | Adavere Stage → Paadla Stage
  131. Heliolites interstinctus | Adavere Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  132. Heliolites megastoma | Homerian
  133. Heliolites spongodes |
  134. Heliolites subdecipiens | Ludlow
  135. Kiaerites norvegicus | Llandovery
  136. Kitakamiia callosa | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  137. Laceripora cribrosa | Paadla Stage
  138. Laminoplasma calyculata | Sheinwoodian → Homerian
  139. Lyopora favosa | Katian
  140. Lyopora tenuis | Katian
  141. Mastopora (tabulata) foederata | Jaagarahu Stage
  142. Mastopora (tabulata) incrustata | Jaani Stage
  143. Mcleodea cancellata | Porkuni Stage
  144. Mcleodea parvotubulata | Upper Ordovician
  145. Mcleodea pseudoconferta | Upper Ordovician → Llandovery
  146. Mesofavosites alveolitoides | Jaani Stage
  147. Mesofavosites bonus | Jaani Stage
  148. Mesofavosites densus | Jaani Stage
  149. Mesofavosites fleximurinus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  150. Mesofavosites fortis | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  151. Mesofavosites imbellis | Raikküla Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  152. Mesofavosites inferior | Juuru Stage
  153. Mesofavosites kiltsiensis | Juuru Stage
  154. Mesofavosites major | Jaani Stage
  155. Mesofavosites multiporus | Raikküla Stage
  156. Mesofavosites nikitini | Porkuni Stage
  157. Mesofavosites secundus | Wenlock
  158. Mesofavosites silicificatus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  159. Mesofavosites similis | Juuru Stage
  160. Mesofavosites validus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  161. Mesosolenia festiva | upper Silurian
  162. Multisolenia excelsa | Jaagarahu Stage
  163. Multisolenia frivola | Jaagarahu Stage
  164. Multisolenia reliqua | Kaugatuma Stage
  165. Multisolenia temperans | Raikküla Stage
  166. Multisolenia tortuosa | Raikküla Stage
  167. Multisolenia tortuosaeformis | Raikküla Stage → Adavere Stage
  168. Multithecopora norvegica | Llandovery
  169. Nodulipora acuminata | Wenlock
  170. Nyctopora parvotubulata | Ordovician
  171. Pachypora lamellicornis | Sheinwoodian
  172. Palaeofavosipora clausa | Wenlock
  173. Palaeoporites estonicus | Porkuni Stage
  174. Paleofavosites aaloei | Juuru Stage
  175. Paleofavosites abstrusus | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  176. Paleofavosites aliquantulus | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  177. Paleofavosites alveolaris | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  178. Paleofavosites asper | Juuru Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  179. Paleofavosites balticus | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  180. Paleofavosites borealis | Vormsi Stage → Wenlock
  181. Paleofavosites collatatus | Jaagarahu Stage
  182. Paleofavosites corrugatus | Porkuni Stage
  183. Paleofavosites dagoensis | Juuru Stage
  184. Paleofavosites dualis | Porkuni Stage → Raikküla Stage
  185. Paleofavosites estonus | Pirgu Stage
  186. Paleofavosites felix | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  187. Paleofavosites finitimus | Paadla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  188. Paleofavosites forbesiformis | Juuru Stage → Jaani Stage
  189. Paleofavosites forbesiformis porosus | Wenlock
  190. Paleofavosites forbesiformis raritabulata | Juuru Stage
  191. Paleofavosites frivolus | Jaagarahu Stage
  192. Paleofavosites globosus | Porkuni Stage
  193. Paleofavosites gramineus | Porkuni Stage
  194. Paleofavosites haapsaluensis | Pirgu Stage → Raikküla Stage
  195. Paleofavosites hirtus | Juuru Stage
  196. Paleofavosites hystrix | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  197. Paleofavosites ignotus | Juuru Stage
  198. Paleofavosites jaaniensis | Adavere Stage
  199. Paleofavosites juuru | Juuru Stage
  200. Paleofavosites kalvensis | Llandovery
  201. Paleofavosites karinuensis | Raikküla Stage
  202. Paleofavosites legibilis | Porkuni Stage
  203. Paleofavosites limbergensis | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  204. Paleofavosites luhai | Jaani Stage
  205. Paleofavosites luxuriosus | Adavere Stage
  206. Paleofavosites mirus | Llandovery
  207. Paleofavosites moribundus | Kuressaare Stage
  208. Paleofavosites mullochensis | Porkuni Stage
  209. Paleofavosites mysticus | Juuru Stage
  210. Paleofavosites nodosus | Wenlock
  211. Paleofavosites oelaensis | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  212. Paleofavosites optatus | Juuru Stage
  213. Paleofavosites parilis | Jaagarahu Stage
  214. Paleofavosites pauculus | Jaagarahu Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  215. Paleofavosites paulus | Juuru Stage → Adavere Stage
  216. Paleofavosites pinnatus | Raikküla Stage
  217. Paleofavosites porkuniensis | Porkuni Stage
  218. Paleofavosites porosus | Juuru Stage
  219. Paleofavosites poulseni | Adavere Stage
  220. Paleofavosites primus | Juuru Stage → Raikküla Stage
  221. Paleofavosites raikuelaensis | Raikküla Stage
  222. Paleofavosites rudis | Juuru Stage
  223. Paleofavosites rugosus | Porkuni Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  224. Paleofavosites saaremicus | Jaani Stage
  225. Paleofavosites schmidti | Vormsi Stage → Adavere Stage
  226. Paleofavosites secundus | Wenlock
  227. Paleofavosites septosus | Adavere Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  228. Paleofavosites suurikuensis | Jaani Stage
  229. Paleofavosites tenuis | Jaani Stage
  230. Paleofavosites tersus | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  231. Paleofavosites vetustus | Pirgu Stage
  232. Paleofavosites vexatus | Juuru Stage
  233. Paramongolites spiralis | Katian
  234. Parastriatopora celebrata | Raikküla Stage
  235. Parastriatopora commutabilis | Rootsiküla Stage
  236. Parastriatopora coreaniformis | Paadla Stage
  237. Parastriatopora mirifica | Raikküla Stage
  238. Parastriatopora priva | Jaagarahu Stage
  239. Placocoenites pellicula | Adavere Stage
  240. Planalveolites fougti | Sheinwoodian
  241. Plasmopora foroensis | Wenlock
  242. Plasmopora petalliformis | Wenlock
  243. Plasmopora scala | Telychian
  244. Plasmopora scita | Telychian → Homerian
  245. Plasmopora suprema | Ludlow
  246. Plasmoporella convexotabulata | Upper Ordovician
  247. Porkunites amalloides | Porkuni Stage
  248. Pragnellia arborescens | Upper Ordovician
  249. Priscosolenia perarmata | Porkuni Stage
  250. Priscosolenia prisca | Porkuni Stage
  251. Priscosolenia prisca occulta | Porkuni Stage
  252. Propora affinis | Katian → Aeronian
  253. Propora askerensis | Ordovician
  254. Propora bacillifera | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  255. Propora conferta | Porkuni Stage → Paadla Stage
  256. Propora euryacantha | Wenlock
  257. Propora exigua |
  258. Propora magna | Silurian
  259. Propora raricellata | Jaani Stage
  260. Propora reticulata | Telychian
  261. Propora speciosa | Upper Ordovician → Silurian
  262. Propora tubulata | Juuru Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  263. Protaraea approximata | Vormsi Stage
  264. Protaraea bella | Vormsi Stage
  265. Protaraea diffluens | Oandu Stage
  266. Protaraea megastoma minor | Upper Ordovician
  267. Protaraea schmidtii | Pirgu Stage
  268. Protaraea ungerni | Upper Ordovician
  269. Protaraea vetusta |
  270. Protoheliolites dubius | Pirgu Stage
  271. Protoheliolites gracilis | Porkuni Stage
  272. Protoheliolites norvegicus | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  273. Pseudocosmiolithus varians | Porkuni Stage
  274. Pseudoplasmopora conspecta | Ludlow
  275. Pseudoplasmopora longisepta | Ludlow
  276. Pushkinites victori | Vormsi Stage
  277. Pycnolithus bifidus | lower Silurian
  278. Rhabdotetradium frutex | Porkuni Stage
  279. Riphaeolites lamelliformis | Jaagarahu Stage → Paadla Stage
  280. Romingeria nana | Adavere Stage
  281. Saaremolites inversus | Jaagarahu Stage
  282. Saaremolites kurzemensis | Ludlow
  283. Saffordophyllum grande | Oandu Stage
  284. Saffordophyllum kiaeri | Ordovician
  285. Saffordophyllum tulaensis | Oandu Stage
  286. Sarcinula lata | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  287. Sarcinula organum | Upper Ordovician
  288. Sarcinula partita | Pirgu Stage
  289. Sarcinula rakverense | Rakvere Stage
  290. Sarcinula venusta | Pirgu Stage
  291. Sinopora callosa | Adavere Stage
  292. Sinopora operta | Raikküla Stage
  293. Solenihalysites gotlandicus | Ludlow
  294. Sparsisolenia kiaeri | Llandovery
  295. Squameolites rudis | Llandovery → Ludlow
  296. Stelliporella fasciatus | Telychian
  297. Stelliporella liljevalli | Telychian
  298. Stelliporella parvistella | Vormsi Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  299. Stelliporella repletus | Sheinwoodian
  300. Striatopora calyculata | Jaani Stage
  301. Striatopora coenitoides | Jaagarahu Stage
  302. Striatopora flexuosa | Sheinwoodian
  303. Subalveolitella majuscula | Adavere Stage
  304. Subalveolitella minuscula | Adavere Stage
  305. Subalveolites eichwaldi | Adavere Stage → Jaani Stage
  306. Subalveolites panderi | Llandovery → Wenlock
  307. Subalveolites sokolovi | Jaani Stage → Paadla Stage
  308. Syringoheliolites incognitus | Ludlow
  309. Syringoheliolites ludlovicus | Ludlow
  310. Syringolites kunthianus | Jaani Stage → Jaagarahu Stage
  311. Syringopora affabilis | Paadla Stage
  312. Syringopora bifurcata | Silurian
  313. Syringopora blanda | Raikküla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  314. Syringopora lindstroemi | Llandovery → Wenlock
  315. Syringopora multifaria | Paadla Stage → Kaugatuma Stage
  316. Syringopora novella | Llandovery → Wenlock
  317. Syringopora schmidti | Paadla Stage
  318. Thamnopora cervicornis | Emsian → Frasnian
  319. Thamnopora undvaensis | Jaani Stage
  320. Thecia confluens | Jaagarahu Stage → Kuressaare Stage
  321. Thecia estonica | Jaagarahu Stage
  322. Thecia fruticosa | Jaagarahu Stage
  323. Thecia podolica | Jaani Stage
  324. Thecia saaremica | Jaagarahu Stage
  325. Thecia swinderniana | Paadla Stage
  326. Thecia tenuicula | Jaani Stage
  327. Trochiscolithus micraster | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  328. Trochiscolithus rigidus | Pirgu Stage
  329. Urceopora furcata | Vormsi Stage
  330. Vacupora kaljoi | Raikküla Stage
  331. Visbylites stella | Juuru Stage → Rootsiküla Stage
  332. Vishkilites heiolitoides | Hirnantian
  333. Wormsipora hirsuta | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  334. Wormsipora miranda | Vormsi Stage

Taxon overview

Introduction

 

Tabulates, subclass or order Tabulata, are extinct corals of anthozoans. Tabulates, unlike rugosans, were always colonial organisms. They have simple calcareous skeleton, colonies consisting of prismatic or tube-like corallites communicating by mural pores or pore channels or tunnels. Polyps lived inside corallites as chambers with base-like tabulae below and septal spines or laminar septa on sides protruding from the corallite wall. Tabulate corals are taxonomically complicated because of their simplicity.  Favositids are characterized by closely packed corallites with mural-pores and their morphology is so variable that it differs even within a colony. Heliolitids are more complicated because of their coenenchymal tissue between corallites, which consists of tiny tubes - tubuli or wavy dissepiments. Halysitids are similar with having often coenenchyme, but their corallites are enclosed into ranks of various shape and size. Syringoporids form fasciculate colonies consisting of tubes having little space around and being connected by pore tunnels. Auloporids are reptant forms encrusting other organisms, as a small horny network.      

 

Occurrence

 

Tabulate corals occurred in the Ordovician Period of America and Siberia, much earlier than in Baltoscandia. The first appearances of tabulates Lyopora, Eoflecheria, Saffordophyllum and Protaraea in Baltica are known from the level of the Oandu Stage. Estonia is rich in Ordovician and Silurian tabulates, which are easy to find in localities of Hiiumaa, Vormsi and Saaremaa. Quarries in mainland are nice places to observe tabulates in their living position.

 

Investigation methods

 

Tabulates are large, but their finer taxonomy is observed only from peels and thin-sections. Normally pair of thin-sections is made from transverse and vertical directions of colony growth. Peel is an acetate replica from the polished and etched surface of the colony cut. Thin-sections are thin pieces of colonies, clued to glass and grinded down until 50 microns. Their scanned and photographed images are investigated later by using different software.

 

Role in geology

 

Tabulates are sessile organisms which preferred only shallow seas and are not mush useful in stratigraphy. They were spread on ancient oceans sporadically or formed bioherms or biostromes. Together with strtomatoporoids, rugosans and other fossils in the same community, they are informative in palaeoecology.  Sedimentological processes are readable also from the shape and growth details of such organisms.

 

Selection of related publications

  • Vinn et al., 2017. Endobiotic rugose coral symbionts in Silurian tabulate corals from Estonia (Baltica) [DOI]
  • Zatoń et al., 2016. A new microconchid species from the Silurian of Baltica [DOI]
  • Kershaw & Mõtus, 2016 . Palaeoecology of corals and stromatoporoids in a late Silurian biostrome in Estonia [DOI]
  • Liang et al., 2013. Growth characteristics of Protoheliolites norvegicus (Tabulata; Upper Ordovician; Estonia) [DOI]
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2012a. New endobiotic cornulitid and Cornulites sp. aff. Cornulites celatus (Cornulitida, Tentaculita) from the Katian of Vormsi Island, Estonia [DOI]
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2012b. Diverse early endobiotic coral symbiont assemblage from the Katian (Late Ordovician) of Baltica [DOI]
  • Mõtus & Zaika, 2012. The oldest heliolitids from the early Katian of the East Baltic region
  • Mõtus & Vinn, 2009. The worm endosymbionts in tabulate corals from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine [DOI]
  • Vinn & Mõtus, 2008. The earliest endosymbiotic mineralized tubeworms from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine
  • Mõtus & Grytsenko, 2007. Morphological variation of the tabulate coral Paleofavosites cf. collatatus Klaamann, 1961 from the Silurian of the Bagovichka River localities, Podolia (Ukraine) [DOI]
  • Mõtus & Hints, O., 2007. 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. Excursion B2: Lower Paleozoic geology and corals of Estonia. Excursion Guidebook
  • Mõtus, 2006. Intraspecific variation in Wenlock tabulate corals from Saaremaa (Estonia) and its taxonomic implications
  • Kershaw et al., 2006. Stromatoporoid response to muddy substrates in Silurian limestones
  • Jeppsson et al., 2005. Locality descriptions
  • Young & Kershaw, 2005. Classification and controls of internal banding in Palaeozoic stromatoporoids and colonial corals
  • Mõtus & Sandström, 2005. Cystihalysites sp. and its significance to biostratigraphy and event stratigraphy in the Ludlow (Late Silurian) of Gotland, Sweden
  • Mõtus, 2004. Tabulate corals from the Lower Silurian of Jämtland (Sweden)
  • Nestor, H. et al., 2001. Description of the type section, cyclicity, and correlation of the Riksu Formation (Wenlock, Estonia)
  • Mõtus, 2001. Environment related morphological variation in Early Silurian tabulate corals from the Baltic area
  • Mõtus & Klaamann, 1999. The halysitid coral genera Halysites and Cystihalysites from Gotland, Sweden
  • Dixon, 1996. Heliolitine corals of the upper Douro Formation (upper Silurian), Canadian Arctic Islands.
  • Serezhnikova, 1992. New Heliolitoidea from the lower Silurian of Central Kazakhstan
  • Bondarenko, 1992. The system of heliolitoids
  • Klaamann, 1984a. Heliolitidis in the East Baltic Late Silurian coral communities