Cephalopoda

Cephalopods
Class Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1798

et: peajalgsed; sv: bläckfiskar; fi: pääjalkaiset; ru: головоногие;

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Adamsoceras holmi | Kunda Stage
  2. Aluveroceras ievense | Jõhvi Substage
  3. Ancistroceras torelli | Uhaku Stage
  4. Ancistroceras undulatum | Uhaku Stage
  5. Anthoceras vaginatum | Kunda Stage
  6. Archigeisonoceras folkeslundense | Lasnamägi Stage
  7. Archigeisonoceras picus | Volkhov Stage
  8. Archigeisonoceras repplingense | Volkhov Stage
  9. Arionoceras lotskirkense | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  10. Balticoceras discors | Rakvere Stage
  11. Bathmoceras linnarssoni | Kunda Stage
  12. Beloitoceras estonicum | Vormsi Stage
  13. Beloitoceras siljaense | Katian
  14. Beloitoceras sinuososeptatum | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  15. Bentoceras rubeli | Kunda Stage
  16. Bickmorites falcigerus | Jaani Stage
  17. Bodoceras torticoni | Upper Ordovician
  18. Botellusoceras torpense | Lasnamägi Stage
  19. Cameroceras aluverense | Jõhvi Substage
  20. Cameroceras hasta | Vormsi Stage
  21. Cameroceras kegelense | Keila Stage
  22. Cameroceras kerstovense | Kukruse Stage
  23. Cameroceras kuckersense | Kukruse Stage
  24. Cameroceras lasnamaense | Lasnamägi Stage
  25. Cameroceras ojamense | Idavere Substage
  26. Cameroceras ontikaense | Lasnamägi Stage
  27. Cameroceras paldiskiense | Lasnamägi Stage
  28. Cameroceras planum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  29. Cameroceras rakverense | Rakvere Stage
  30. Cameroceras regulus | Vormsi Stage
  31. Cameroceras shundrorovense | Idavere Substage
  32. Cameroceras spongistraticum | Idavere Substage
  33. Cameroceras tallinense | Lasnamägi Stage
  34. Cameroceras ubjaense | Kukruse Stage
  35. Cameroceras vertebrale | Rakvere Stage
  36. Charactoceras estonicum | Pirgu Stage
  37. Charactoceras kallholnense | Katian
  38. Charactoceras raettvikense | Katian
  39. Charactoceras suecicum | Katian
  40. Charactoceras tolerabile | Oandu Stage
  41. Charactoceras triangulum | Katian
  42. Chisiloceras balticum | Lasnamägi Stage
  43. Chisiloceras luganusense | Lasnamägi Stage
  44. Choanoceras mutabile | Wenlock
  45. Clathroceras plicatum | Ludlow
  46. Cochlioceras angustiseptatum | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  47. Cochlioceras avus | Kunda Stage
  48. Ctenoceras schmidti | Aseri Formation → Lasnamägi Stage
  49. Ctenoceras sweeti | Lasnamägi Stage
  50. Cumingsoceras complanatus | upper Silurian
  51. Curtoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  52. Curtoceras krestovense | Kukruse Stage
  53. Curtoceras teres | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  54. Cyclolituites kjerulfi | Kunda Stage
  55. Cyrtorizoceras borni |
  56. Cyrtorizoceras thorsundi | Katian
  57. Dalecarlioceras bodense | Katian
  58. Dalecarlioceras constrictum | Katian
  59. Dalecarlioceras dalecarlicum | Katian
  60. Danoceras broeggeri | Katian
  61. Danoceras scandinavicum | Katian → Hirnantian
  62. Dawsonoceras annulatum | Wenlock
  63. Dawsonoceras barrandei | Wenlock
  64. Dawsonoceras fenestratum | Porkuni Stage
  65. Dawsonoceras gregarium | Hirnantian
  66. Dawsonoceras obsoletum | Paadla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  67. Dawsonoceras stumburi | Vormsi Stage
  68. Dideroceras frisense | Volkhov Stage
  69. Dideroceras glauconiticum | Volkhov Stage
  70. Dideroceras laxiseptatum | Volkhov Stage
  71. Dideroceras leetsense | Tremadocian
  72. Dideroceras magnisiphonicum | Lasnamägi Stage
  73. Dideroceras popovkense | Volkhov Stage
  74. Dideroceras purtsense | Kunda Stage
  75. Dideroceras rectestrigatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  76. Diestoceras parallelum | Katian
  77. Discoceras angulatum | Pirgu Stage
  78. Discoceras antiquissimum | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  79. Discoceras bandonis | Idavere Substage
  80. Discoceras boreale | Darriwilian → Sandbian
  81. Discoceras costatum |
  82. Discoceras gubkovense | Idavere Substage
  83. Discoceras ievense | Jõhvi Substage
  84. Discoceras roemeri | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  85. Discoceras siljanense | Hirnantian
  86. Discoceras spongistriatum | Upper Ordovician
  87. Discoceras vasalemmense | Jõhvi Substage → Oandu Stage
  88. Donacoceras gotlandense |
  89. Dowlingoceras kallholnense | Katian
  90. Dowlingoceras piersalense | Nabala Stage → Pirgu Stage
  91. Endoceras accomodatum | Ordovician
  92. Endoceras duplex | Ordovician
  93. Estonioceras ariense | Kunda Stage
  94. Estonioceras imperfectum | Kunda Stage
  95. Estonioceras kundense | Kunda Stage
  96. Estonioceras lamellosum | Kunda Stage
  97. Estonioceras perforatum | Kunda Stage
  98. Estonioceras subcostatum | Kunda Stage
  99. Estonioceras volchovense | Kunda Stage
  100. Eushantungoceras pseudoimbricatum | Ludlow
  101. Geisonoceras wegelini | Vormsi Stage
  102. Gorbyoceras alternestriatum | Katian
  103. Gorbyoceras clathroannulatum | Nabala Stage → Vormsi Stage
  104. Gorbyoceras textumaraneum | Rakvere Stage → Pirgu Stage
  105. Inversoceras perversum |
  106. Inversoceras perversum perversum | Ludlow
  107. Isorthoceras angelini | Katian
  108. Isorthoceras curvilineatum | Katian
  109. Isorthoceras dalecarlense | Hirnantian
  110. Isorthoceras elongatocinctum | Katian
  111. Isorthoceras heroyense | Katian
  112. Isorthoceras junceum | Hirnantian
  113. Isorthoceras luhai | Upper Ordovician
  114. Isorthoceras suave | Katian
  115. Isorthoceras wahlenbergi | Katian
  116. Jeppssonoceras concentratum | Ludlow
  117. Kallholnoceras cornutum | Katian
  118. Kiaeroceras heroyense | Katian
  119. Kinnekulloceras kinnekullense |
  120. Kundoceras evansi | Kunda Stage
  121. Lituites convolvens | Kunda Stage
  122. Lituites hageni | Ordovician
  123. Lituites latum | Aseri Stage
  124. Lituites lituus | Ordovician
  125. Lituites perfectus | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  126. Lituites praecurrens | Kunda Stage
  127. Lituites procerus | Lasnamägi Stage
  128. Lituites tenuicaulis | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  129. Lituites törnquisti | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  130. Lyecoceras gotlandense |
  131. Nathorstoceras adnatum | Katian
  132. Nathorstoceras kallholnense | Katian
  133. Neumatoceras borense | Kunda Stage
  134. Neumatoceras parviborense | Kunda Stage
  135. Nilssonoceras latisiphonatum | Kunda Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  136. Nilssonoceras nilssoni | Kunda Stage → Uhaku Stage
  137. Nybyoceras balticum | Pirgu Stage
  138. Nybyoceras bekkeri | Pirgu Stage
  139. Nybyoceras intermedia | Pirgu Stage
  140. Octameroceras pugil | Wenlock → Ludlow
  141. Octameroceras rimosum | Ludlow
  142. Octameroceras sinuosum | Ludlow
  143. Octameroceras unguifer | Wenlock
  144. Oelandoceras haelluddenense | Kunda Stage
  145. Ordogeisonoceras amplicameratum | Upper Ordovician
  146. Ordogeisonoceras foerstei | Katian
  147. Ormoceras brevis |
  148. Ormoceras estonicum | Lasnamägi Stage
  149. Ormoceras heckeri | Pirgu Stage
  150. Ormoceras schmidti | Kunda Stage
  151. Ormoceras volchovense | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  152. Orthoceras bifoveatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  153. Orthoceras calamiteus |
  154. Orthoceras conicum |
  155. Orthoceras luhai | Vormsi Stage
  156. Orthoceras regulare | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  157. Orthoceras scabridum | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  158. Orthocycloceras ibex | Silurian
  159. Palaeodawsonocerina nicolletoides | Katian
  160. Palaeodawsonocerina senckenbergi | Keila Stage → Pirgu Stage
  161. Paldoceras neptunsakerense | Kunda Stage
  162. Paldoceras paldiskense | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  163. Paleocyclendoceras eichwaldi | Uhaku Stage
  164. Paracyclendoceras aluverense | Haljala Stage
  165. Paracyclendoceras compressum | Kunda Stage
  166. Paramiamoceras breviventrum | Kunda Stage
  167. Parvihebetoceras wahli | Porkuni Stage
  168. Patagiumoceras crebristriatum | Wenlock
  169. Patagiumoceras urnulum | Wenlock
  170. Pentameroceras facula | Wenlock → Ludlow
  171. Pentameroceras mirum | Ludlow → Wenlock
  172. Pentameroceras nondum | Wenlock
  173. Pentameroceras tibia | Wenlock
  174. Phtanoncoceras ellipticum | Ordovician
  175. Phtanoncoceras oelandense | Ordovician
  176. Pictetoceras eichwaldi | Kunda Stage
  177. Pictetoceras oliviae | Kunda Stage
  178. Piersaloceras gageli | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  179. Plagiostomoceras fragile | Lasnamägi Stage
  180. Plagiostomoceras laevigatum | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  181. Planctoceras arciforme | Kunda Stage
  182. Plemeroceras cassis | Ludlow
  183. Pleurorthoceras osmundsbergense | Katian
  184. Pomerantsoceras tibia | Porkuni Stage
  185. Porkunioceras tuba | Porkuni Stage
  186. Probillingsites scandinavicum | Katian
  187. Proterocameroceras gdovense | Kunda Stage
  188. Proterocameroceras mishinagorense | Aseri Stage
  189. Proterovaginoceras belemnitiforme | Aseri Stage
  190. Proterovaginoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage
  191. Proterovaginoceras gladius | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  192. Proterovaginoceras incognitum | Kunda Stage
  193. Protocyclendoceras iruense | Kunda Stage
  194. Redpathoceras bullatum | Katian
  195. Redpathoceras depressum | Katian
  196. Redpathoceras magnum | Katian
  197. Retizitteloceras rarum | Hirnantian
  198. Richardsonoceras gastroscopium | Kunda Stage
  199. Rossicoceras compressum |
  200. Rossicoceras depressum | Haljala Stage
  201. Rossicoceras idaverense | Idavere Substage
  202. Schmidtoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage
  203. Schmidtoceras kundense | Kunda Stage
  204. Schroederoceras danckelmanni | Jõhvi Substage → Keila Stage
  205. Schroederoceras rarospira | Rakvere Stage → Nabala Stage
  206. Schroederoceras tammikuense | Jõhvi Substage → Keila Stage
  207. Schroederoceras tammikuense chrevitsaense | Jõhvi Substage
  208. Schroederoceras vesenbergense | Rakvere Stage
  209. Schuchertoceras bodense | Katian
  210. Schuchertoceras fryi | Katian
  211. Schuchertoceras ringerikiense | Upper Ordovician
  212. Schuchertoceras troedssoni | Katian
  213. Siljanoceras varians | Katian
  214. Simonssonoceras triangulum | Wenlock
  215. Spyroceras perlaeve | Upper Ordovician
  216. Strandoceras orvikui | Porkuni Stage
  217. Strandoceras sphinx | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  218. Striatocycloceras foerstei | Vormsi Stage
  219. Striatocycloceras isbergi | Vormsi Stage
  220. Striatocycloceras obliquum | Nabala Stage
  221. Striatocycloceras romingeri | Haljala Stage → Rakvere Stage
  222. Striatocycloceras undulostriatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Vormsi Stage
  223. Suecoceras angelini | Aseri Stage
  224. Suecoceras aseriense | Aseri Stage
  225. Suecoceras barrandei | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  226. Suecoceras magnicameratum | Aseri Stage
  227. Suecoceras mishinagorense | Aseri Stage
  228. Suecoceras schlieffeni | Aseri Stage
  229. Tallinoceras nechatuense | Lasnamägi Stage
  230. Tragoceras falcatus | Kunda Stage
  231. Tragoceras purtsensis | Aseri Stage
  232. Transorthoceras osmundbergense | Upper Ordovician
  233. Trilacinoceras discors | Ordovician
  234. Trimeroceras bulbosum | Wenlock
  235. Trimeroceras cylindricum | Ludlow
  236. Trocholites contractus | Uhaku Stage
  237. Trocholites depressus | Lasnamägi Stage
  238. Trocholites hospes |
  239. Trocholites incongruus | Lasnamägi Stage
  240. Trocholites odini | Lasnamägi Stage
  241. Trocholites orbis | Uhaku Stage
  242. Tyrioceras kjaerulfi |
  243. Tyrioceras warburgae | Katian
  244. Vaginoceras luganusense | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  245. Ventrolobendoceras grandiense | Lasnamägi Stage
  246. Warburgoceras longitudinale | Katian

Taxon overview

Cephalopoda  or cephalopods are extraordinary molluscs equipped with vertebrate-like intelligence and a unique buoyancy system for locomotion. Cephalopods evolved during the Cambrian where external shell was modified into a chambered buoyancy apparatus. During the mid-Palaeozoic cephalopods diverged into nautiloids and the presently dominant coleoids. Coleoids (i.e. squids, cuttlefish and octopods) internalised their shells which appears to be a unique evolutionary event. The general tendency of shell reduction reflects a trend towards active modes of life and much more complex behaviour.

Cephalopods are exclusively marine animals. They are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles (muscular hydrostats) modified from the primitive molluscan foot. Fishermen sometimes call them inkfish, referring to their common ability to squirt ink. About 800 living species of cephalopods have been identified. Two important extinct taxa are the Ammonoidea (ammonites) and Belemnoidea (belemnites).

Selection of related publications

  • Aubrechtová & Meidla, 2016. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda) [DOI]
  • Klug et al., 2015. Normal giants? Temporal and latitudinal shifts of Palaeozoic marine invertebrate gigantism and global change [DOI]
  • Kröger, 2013. The cephalopods of the Boda Limestone, Late Ordovician, of Dalarna, Sweden [DOI]
  • Kröger, 2012. The "Vaginaten": the dominant cephalopods of the Baltoscandian Mid Ordovician endocerid limestone
  • Mutvei & Dunca, 2011. Siphuncular structure in the orders Tarphycerida and Barrandeocerida (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea) [DOI]
  • Kröger et al., 2011. Mass concentration of Hirnantian cephalopods from the Siljan District, Sweden; palaeoecology and palaeobiogeographic relationships [DOI]
  • Kröger et al., 2009. Discosorids and Oncocerids (Cephalopoda) of the Middle Ordovician Kunda and Aseri Regional Stages of Baltoscandia and the early evolution of these groups
  • Kröger, 2007. Concentrations of juvenile and small adult cephalopods in the Hirnantian cherts (Late Ordovician) of Porkuni, Estonia
  • Kröger & Isakar, 2006. Revision of annulated orthoceridan cephalopods of the Baltoscandic Ordovician
  • Kröger et al., 2005. Soft−tissue attachments in orthocerid and bactritid cephalopods from the Earlyand Middle Devonian of Germany and Morocco
  • Kröger & Mutvei, 2005. Nautiloids with multiple paired muscle scars from Lower-Middle Ordovician of Baltoscandia
  • Kröger, 2004. Revision of Middle Ordovician orthoceratacean nautiloids from Baltoscandia
  • Mutvei, 2002a. Connecting ring structure and its significance for classification of the orthoceratid cephalopods
  • Jacobson, 1999. Five new cephalopod species from the Silurian of Gotland
  • Mutvei, 1998. Siphuncular structure in a Silurian narthecoceratid nautiloid cephalopod from the Island of Gotland
  • Mutvei, 1997. Siphuncular structure in Ordovician endocerid cephalopods
  • Kiselev, 1991.
  • Männil, Reet, 1979. Silurian trilobites of the subfamily Warburgellinae of the East Baltic area
  • Stumbur, H., 1975. Biomertical characteristics of the shell of a living Nautilus
  • Stumbur, H., 1962. Distribution of nautiloids in the Ordovician of Estonia with a description of some new genera
  • Stumbur, H., 1960b. On different ways of evolution of nautiloids
  • Stumbur, H., 1960a. On some ... of nautiloids
  • Stumbur, H., 1959. On the embryonic shells of some Ordovician Tarphyceratida
  • Stumbur, H., 1956. On the nautiloids of Kohila Subseries (Upper Ordovician of East Baltic)
  • Stumbur, H., 1955. Eesti NSV ülem-ordoviitsiumi nautiloididest
  • Strand, 1933. The Upper Ordovician Cephalopods of the Oslo Area.