Eunicida

Scolecodonts
Order Eunicida Dales, 1963

et: skolekodondid; fi: skolekodontit; sv: scolecodonter;

Taxon ID: 62 / 2013-11-09
Belongs to: Polychaeta
Sister taxa: Serpulimorpha
Contains: Atraktoprionidae | Conjungaspidae | Eunicida Incertae Familiae | Hadoprionidae | Kalloprionidae | Mochtyellidae | Paulinitidae | Polychaetaspidae | Polychaeturidae | Ramphoprionidae | Rhytiprionidae | Skalenoprionidae | Symmetroprionidae | Tetraprionidae | Tretoprionidae | Xanioprionidae
Stratigraphic range: Upper Cambrian (old nomenclature) Recent | ~ 499,0–0,0 Ma
Baltoscandian species (in database): 71

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Atraktoprion cornutus |
  2. Atraktoprion major |
  3. Atraktoprion mirabilis |
  4. Conjungaspis minutus | Ordovician → Silurian
  5. Dubichaetaspis bergmani |
  6. Estonioprion maennili | Haljala Stage → Keila Stage
  7. Eunicites ala | Kukruse Stage
  8. Eunicites bekkeri | Kukruse Stage
  9. Euryprion rarus |
  10. Gotlandites slitensis | Wenlock
  11. Hadoprion cervicornis |
  12. Incisiprion edentulus | Keila Stage
  13. Incisiprion incisus | Kukruse Stage → Keila Stage
  14. Kadriorgaspis kaisae | Tremadocian
  15. Kaljoprion laevaensis | Nabala Stage
  16. Kalloprion triangularis |
  17. Kettnerites abraham | Llandovery → Wenlock
  18. Kettnerites bankvaetensis | Wenlock → Ludlow
  19. Kettnerites burgensis | Ludlow
  20. Kettnerites fjaelensis | Wenlock → Ludlow
  21. Kettnerites huberti | Wenlock → Ludlow
  22. Kettnerites jacobi | Wenlock
  23. Kettnerites martinssonii | Llandovery → Ludlow
  24. Kettnerites microdentatus | Llandovery → Ludlow
  25. Kettnerites polonensis | Wenlock → Ludlow
  26. Kettnerites siaelsoeensis | Llandovery
  27. Kettnerites sisyphi | Llandovery → Ludlow
  28. Kettnerites versabilis | Llandovery
  29. Kingnites diamondi | Wenlock → Ludlow
  30. Kozlowskiprion brevialatus |
  31. Kozlowskiprion longicavernosus |
  32. Lanceolatites gracilis | Llandovery → Ludlow
  33. Langeites glaber |
  34. Leptoprion artus |
  35. Lunoprionella symmetrica |
  36. Megaramphoprion magnus | Telychian → Ludfordian
  37. Mochtyella cristata |
  38. Mochtyella duplicidentata |
  39. Mochtyella fragilis |
  40. Mochtyella polonica |
  41. Mochtyella pragensis |
  42. Oenonites eichwaldi |
  43. Oenonites gadomskae | Ordovician → Silurian
  44. Oenonites jennyensis | Silurian
  45. Oenonites latus | Upper Ordovician → Silurian
  46. Oenonites olavi |
  47. Oenonites tuberculatus | Upper Ordovician
  48. Oenonites varsoviensis | Ordovician → Silurian
  49. Oenonites wejstorpi |
  50. Oenonites wyszogrodensis | Ordovician → Silurian
  51. Oenonites zappae |
  52. Oenonites? honki |
  53. Pararamphoprion urbaneki |
  54. Pistoprion transitans | Haljala Stage → Silurian
  55. Protarabellites rectangularis | Sheinwoodian → Ludfordian
  56. Protarabellites staufferi | Telychian → Ludfordian
  57. Protarabellites triangularis | Sheinwoodian → Ludfordian
  58. Pteropelta gladiata | Volkhov Stage → Juuru Stage
  59. Pteropelta huberti | Kukruse Stage → Pirgu Stage
  60. Pteropelta kielanae | Haljala Stage → Keila Stage
  61. Rakvereprion balticus | Upper Ordovician
  62. Ramphoprion bialatus | Upper Ordovician
  63. Ramphoprion elongatus |
  64. Rhytiprion magnus | Middle Ordovician → Silurian
  65. Skalenoprion bugensis |
  66. Symmetroprion spatiosus |
  67. Tetraprion pozaryskae |
  68. Tretoprion astae |
  69. Vistulella kozlowskii |
  70. Xanioprion borealis |
  71. Xanioprion viivei | Hunneberg Stage

Taxon overview

Polychaete worms of the order Eunicida possess microscopic jaws, called scolecodonts, that are common in the fossil record (unlike the soft-bodied worms themselves). 

In Baltoscandian Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks the scolecodonts are well preserved and better studied than any other place in the world. They can sometimes be found on bedding planes but far larger collections can be obtained by acid extraction technique. Thus scolecodonts belong to acid-resistant microfossils, together with chitinozoans, conodonts and acritarchs.

Selection of related publications

  • Hints, O. et al., 2017a. Early Middle Ordovician scolecodonts from northwestern Argentina and the emergence of labidognath polychaete jaw apparatuses [DOI]
  • Eriksson et al., 2017. Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ – gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete [DOI]
  • Tonarová et al., 2016. Middle Devonian jawed polychaete fauna from the type Eifel area, western Germany, and its biogeographical and evolutionary affinities [DOI]
  • Moutinho et al., 2016. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower – Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil [DOI]
  • Hints, O. et al., 2016. Late Ordovician jaw-bearing polychaetes from Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, and their biogeographic significance [DOI]
  • Hints, O. et al., 2015. Late Ordovician scolecodonts from the Qusaiba-1 core hole, central Saudi Arabia, and their paleogeographical affinities [DOI]
  • Tonarová et al., 2014. Impact of the Silurian Ireviken Event on polychaete faunas: new insights from the Viki drill core, western Estonia [DOI]
  • Vinn et al., 2012. Systematics of serpulid tubeworms (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Cretaceous and Cenozoic hydrocarbon-seep deposits in North America and Europe [DOI]
  • Eriksson et al., 2012. Kingnites diamondi gen. et sp. nov., an exceptionally large Silurian paulinitid (Annelida; Polychaeta) from shallow marine settings of Baltoscandia [DOI]
  • Hints, O. & Eriksson, 2010. Ordovician polychaeturid polychaetes: Taxonomy, distribution and palaeoecology [DOI]
  • Truuver, 2009. Skolekodondid Kalana karjääris. Juh O. Tinn
  • Hints, O., 2008. Kaljoprion - a new enigmatic jawed polychaete genus from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, O. & Eriksson, 2007. Diversification and biogeography of scolecodont-bearing polychaetes in the Ordovician [DOI]
  • Rubel et al., 2007. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, L. et al., 2007a. Hulterstad brachiopods and associated faunas in the Vormsi Stage (Upper Ordovician, Katian) of the Lelle core, Central Estonia
  • Hints, O. et al., 2006. Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia
  • Hints, O. & Nõlvak, 2006. Early Ordovician scolecodonts and chitinozoans from Tallinn, North Estonia [DOI]
  • Eriksson, 2001. Silurian Ramphoprionid polychaetes from Gotland, Sweden [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 2000. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 1999b. Two new polychaete families from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 1998a. Revision of the Ordovician and Silurian ramphoprionid polychaetes from Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic
  • Hints, O., 1998c. Late Viruan (Ordovician) polychaete jaws from North Estonia and the St. Petersburg Region