Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1797


Taxon overview

Cephalopoda  or cephalopods are extraordinary molluscs equipped with vertebrate-like intelligence and a unique buoyancy system for locomotion. Cephalopods evolved during the Cambrian where external shell was modified into a chambered buoyancy apparatus. During the mid-Palaeozoic cephalopods diverged into nautiloids and the presently dominant coleoids. Coleoids (i.e. squids, cuttlefish and octopods) internalised their shells which appears to be a unique evolutionary event. The general tendency of shell reduction reflects a trend towards active modes of life and much more complex behaviour.

Cephalopods are exclusively marine animals. They are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles (muscular hydrostats) modified from the primitive molluscan foot. Fishermen sometimes call them inkfish, referring to their common ability to squirt ink. About 800 living species of cephalopods have been identified. Two important extinct taxa are the Ammonoidea (ammonites) and Belemnoidea (belemnites).

Selection of related publications
Aubrechtová, M., Korn, D. 2022. Taxonomy and ontogeny of the Lituitida (Cephalopoda) from Orthoceratite Limestone erratics (Middle Ordovician). European Journal of Taxonomy 799, 1-108. DOI:10.5852/ejt.2022.799.1681
Aubrechtová, M., Meidla, T. 2020. Lituitid cephalopods from the upper Darriwilian and basal Sandbian (Middle–Upper Ordovician) of Estonia. GFF 142, 4, 267-296. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2020.1762723
Kröger, B., Aubrechtová, M. 2019. The cephalopods of the Kullsberg Limestone Formation, Upper Ordovician, central Sweden and the effects of reef diversification on cephalopod diversity. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 17, 12, 961-995. DOI:10.1080/14772019.2018.1491899
Pohle, A., Klug, C., Toom, U., Kröger, B. 2019. Conch structures, soft-tissue imprints and taphonomy of the Middle Ordovician cephalopod Tragoceras falcatum from Estonia. Fossil Imprint 75, 1, 70-78. DOI:10.2478/if-2019-0006
Kröger, B., Aubrechtová, M. 2018. Cephalopods from reef limestone of the Vasalemma Formation, northern Estonia (latest Sandbian, Upper Ordovician) and the establishment of a local warm-water fauna. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 16, 10, 799-839. DOI:10.1080/14772019.2017.1347212
Aubrechtová, M., Meidla, T. 2016. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 65, 2, 98-104. DOI:10.3176/earth.2016.07
Mutvei, H. 2015. Characterization of two superorders Nautilosiphonata and Calciosiphonata and a new order Cyrtocerinida of the subclass Nautiloidea; siphuncular structure in the Ordovician nautiloid Bathmoceras (Cephalopoda). GFF 137, 3, 164-174. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2015.1061592
Manda, Š., Turek, V. 2015. Colour patterns on Silurian orthocerid and pseudorthocerid Conchs from Gotland - palaeoecological implications. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 64, 1, 74-79. DOI:10.3176/earth.2015.13
Aubrechtová, M. 2015. A revision of the Ordovician cephalopod Bactrites sandbergeri Barrande: Systematic position and palaeobiogeography of Bactroceras. Geobios 48, 3, 193-211. Elsevier BV. DOI:10.1016/j.geobios.2015.03.002
King, A. H. 2014. Taxonomic review of early Darriwilian estonioceratids (Tarphycerida, Nautiloidea) from Sweden, Estonia, and the ‘Diluvium-Geschiebe’ ofnorthern Germany and Poland. Denisia 32, 47-57.
Kröger, B. 2013. The cephalopods of the Boda Limestone, Late Ordovician, of Dalarna, Sweden. European Journal of Taxonomy 41, 41, 1-110. DOI:10.5852/ejt.2013.41
Tatzreiter, F., Zorn, I. 2013. The Cephalopods of the Hallstatt Limestone Described in the Monographs by Edmund von Mojsisovics 1873, 1875 and 1902 Stored in the Palaeontological Collection of the Geological Survey of Austria. Jahrbuch Geologische Bundesanstalt 153, 1-4, 107-190.
Kröger, B. 2012. The “Vaginaten”: the dominant cephalopods of the Baltoscandian Mid Ordovician endocerid limestone. GFF 134, 2, 115-132. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2012.691897
Kröger, B., Ebbestad, J. O. R., Högström, A. E. S., Frisk, Ǻ. M. 2011. Mass concentration of Hirnantian cephalopods from the Siljan District, Sweden; taxonomy, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeographic relationships. Fossil Record 14, 1, 35-53. DOI:10.1002/mmng.201000014
Mutvei, H., Dunca, E. 2011. Siphuncular structure in the orders Tarphycerida and Barrandeocerida (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea). Palaeontology 54, 3, 705-710. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01041.x
Kröger, B., Zhang, Y., Isakar, M. 2009. Discosorids and Oncocerids (Cephalopoda) of the Middle Ordovician Kunda and Aseri Regional Stages of Baltoscandia and the early evolution of these groups. Geobios 42, 3, 273-292. Elsevier BV. DOI:10.1016/j.geobios.2008.09.006
Kröger, B. 2007. Concentrations of juvenile and small adult cephalopods in the Hirnantian cherts (Late Ordovician) of Porkuni, Estonia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52, 3, 591–608.
Kröger, B., Isakar, M. 2006. Revision of annulated orthoceridan cephalopods of the Baltoscandic Ordovician. Fossil Record 9, 1, 137-163. DOI:10.1002/mmng.200600005
Kröger, B., Mutvei, H. 2005. Nautiloids with multiple paired muscle scars from Lower-Middle Ordovician of Baltoscandia. Palaeontology 48, 4, 781-791. Wiley. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2005.00478.x
Kröger, B., Klug, C., Mapes, R. 2005. Soft−tissue attachments in orthocerid and bactritid cephalopods from the Earlyand Middle Devonian of Germany and Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50, 2, 329–342.
Kröger, B. 2004. Revision of Middle Ordovician orthoceratacean nautiloids from Baltoscandia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49, 1, 57-74.
Mutvei, H. 2002. Connecting ring structure and its significance for classification of the orthoceratid cephalopods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47, 1, 157-168.
Jacobson, M. 1999. Five new cephalopod species from the Silurian of Gotland. Examensarbeite i geologi vid Lunds Universitet 108, 1-18.
King, A. H. 1999. A Review of Volkhovian and Kundan (Arenig-Llanvirn) Nautiloids from Sweden.Advancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods , pp. 137-159. Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-4837-9_11
King, A. H. 1998. A review of the cyclostomiceratid nautiloids, including new taxa from the Lower Ordovician of Öland, Sweden. Palaeontology 41, 2, 335 – 347.
Mutvei, H. 1998. Siphuncular structure in a Silurian narthecoceratid nautiloid cephalopod from the Island of Gotland. GFF 120, 4, 375-378. DOI:10.1080/11035899801204375
Mutvei, H. 1997. Siphuncular structure in Ordovician endocerid cephalopods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 42, 3, 375-390.
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Frye, M. W. 1987. Upper Ordovician (Harjuan) oncoceratid nautiloids from the Boda Limestone, Siljan District, Sweden. GFF 109, 1, 83-99. DOI:10.1080/11035898709454748
Stridsberg, S. 1985. Silurian oncocerid cephalopods from Gotland. Fossils and Strata 18, 1-65.
Dzik, J. 1984. Phylogeny of the Nautiloids. Palaeontologia Polonica 45, 1-323.
Stumbur, H., Mutvei, H. 1983. A new Middle Ordovician torticonic nautiloid. GFF 105, 1, 43-47. DOI:DOI: 10.1080/11035898309455293
Frye, M. W. 1982. Upper Ordovician (Harjuan) nautiloid cephalopods from the Boda Limestone of Sweden. Journal of Paleontology 56, 5, 1274-1295.
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Stumbur, H. A. 1962. Distribution of nautiloids in the Ordovician of Estonia with a description of some new genera. ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi uurimused X, 131-148.
Stumbur, H. A. 1960. On different ways of evolution of nautiloids. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised, Tehniliste ja Füüsikalis-matemaatiliste teaduste seeria / Известия Академии наук Эстонской ССР. Серия технических и физико-математических наук IX, 4, 368-378. DOI:10.3176/phys.math.tech.1960.4.09
Balashov, E. A. 1959. Nekotorye novye vidy nautiloidej ordovika, silura i devona SSSR.Materialy k "Osnovam paleontologii", Bypusk 3 , pp. 37-46. Paleontologicheskii Institut Akademii Nauk SSSR.
Sweet, W. C. 1958. The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway: 10. Nautiloid Cephalopods. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 38, 1, 1-176.
Mutvei, H. 1957. On the relations of the principal muscles to the shell in Nautilus and some fossil nautiloids. Arkiv för Mineralogi och Geologi 2, 10, 219-259.
Stumbur, H. A. 1956. On the nautiloids of Kohila Subseries (Upper Ordovician of East Baltic). Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli Toimetised 42, 176-185.
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