Order Eunicida Dales, 1963

et: skolekodondid; fi: skolekodontit; sv: scolecodonter;

Taxon ID: 62 / 2013-11-09
Belongs to: Polychaeta
Sister taxa: Serpulimorpha
Contains: Atraktoprionidae | Conjungaspidae | Eunicida Incertae Familiae | Hadoprionidae | Kalloprionidae | Mochtyellidae | Paulinitidae | Polychaetaspidae | Polychaeturidae | Ramphoprionidae | Rhytiprionidae | Skalenoprionidae | Symmetroprionidae | Tetraprionidae | Tretoprionidae | Xanioprionidae
Stratigraphic range: Upper Cambrian (old nomenclature) Recent | ~ 499,0–0,0 Ma
Baltoscandian species (in database): 74

Taxon overview

Polychaete worms of the order Eunicida possess microscopic jaws, called scolecodonts, that are common in the fossil record (unlike the soft-bodied worms themselves). 

In Baltoscandian Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks the scolecodonts are well preserved and better studied than any other place in the world. They can sometimes be found on bedding planes but far larger collections can be obtained by acid extraction technique. Thus scolecodonts belong to acid-resistant microfossils, together with chitinozoans, conodonts and acritarchs.

Selection of related publications

  • Hints, O. et al., 2017a. Early Middle Ordovician scolecodonts from northwestern Argentina and the emergence of labidognath polychaete jaw apparatuses [DOI]
  • Eriksson et al., 2017. Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ – gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete [DOI]
  • Hints, O. et al., 2016. Late Ordovician jaw-bearing polychaetes from Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, and their biogeographic significance [DOI]
  • Tonarová et al., 2016. Middle Devonian jawed polychaete fauna from the type Eifel area, western Germany, and its biogeographical and evolutionary affinities [DOI]
  • Moutinho et al., 2016. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower – Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil [DOI]
  • Hints, O. et al., 2015. Late Ordovician scolecodonts from the Qusaiba-1 core hole, central Saudi Arabia, and their paleogeographical affinities [DOI]
  • Tonarová et al., 2014. Impact of the Silurian Ireviken Event on polychaete faunas: new insights from the Viki drill core, western Estonia [DOI]
  • Vinn et al., 2012. Systematics of serpulid tubeworms (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Cretaceous and Cenozoic hydrocarbon-seep deposits in North America and Europe [DOI]
  • Eriksson et al., 2012. Kingnites diamondi gen. et sp. nov., an exceptionally large Silurian paulinitid (Annelida; Polychaeta) from shallow marine settings of Baltoscandia [DOI]
  • Hints, O. & Eriksson, 2010. Ordovician polychaeturid polychaetes: Taxonomy, distribution and palaeoecology [DOI]
  • Truuver, 2009. Skolekodondid Kalana karjääris. Juh O. Tinn
  • Hints, O., 2008. Kaljoprion - a new enigmatic jawed polychaete genus from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, L. et al., 2007a. Hulterstad brachiopods and associated faunas in the Vormsi Stage (Upper Ordovician, Katian) of the Lelle core, Central Estonia
  • Rubel et al., 2007. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, O. & Eriksson, 2007. Diversification and biogeography of scolecodont-bearing polychaetes in the Ordovician [DOI]
  • Hints, O. et al., 2006. Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia
  • Hints, O. & Nõlvak, 2006. Early Ordovician scolecodonts and chitinozoans from Tallinn, North Estonia [DOI]
  • Eriksson, 2001. Silurian Ramphoprionid polychaetes from Gotland, Sweden [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 2000. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 1999b. Two new polychaete families from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia [DOI]
  • Hints, O., 1998a. Revision of the Ordovician and Silurian ramphoprionid polychaetes from Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic
  • Hints, O., 1998c. Late Viruan (Ordovician) polychaete jaws from North Estonia and the St. Petersburg Region