Ichnofossils

Skolithos linearis (Haldeman, 1840)

Taxon description

Knaust et al., 2018

Redefined diagnosis (herein). Vertical to slightly inclined, cylindrical to sub-cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, unbranched burrow, more or less distinctly lined, with homogeneous fill and very high length-to-diameter ratio.

Schlirf, 2000

Emended diagnosis: Cylindrical to subcylindrical, perfectly straight and vertical to slightly curved or inclined burrows. Burrow wall distinct to indistinct, may be annulated.

Discussion: Skolithos is generally interpreted as the domichnion of a suspension-feeding worm or phoronid (summarized in Fürsich 1974b). However, the possibility that certain Skolithos represent entrance shafts to more complicated burrows cannot be excluded (BUCKMAN 1996). The occurrence of a wall lining or lack thereof may be explained as a reaction of the burrower to differences in sediment cohesiveness, as a wall gives the burrow more stability.

Howard & Frey, 1984

Diagnosis Cylindrical to slightly subcylindrical, straight to curved, distinctly walled, rarely branched, vertical to steeply inclined burrows. Classification Preserved as endichnia. Interpreted as dwelling structures of vermiform animals.

Description. Burrows are unrnamented, simple, straight to slightly sinuous structures typically 3 -6mm in diameter and as much as 1 m in maximum length. Locally, burrow length is controlled by bed thickness. Rare specimens of a much larger form of S. linearis occur locally, but these structures, as much as 2 cm in diameter, seem to be relatively unimportant components of prevalent ichnofacies.

Alpert, 1974

Diagnosis. burrows cylindrical to subcylindrical, perfectly straught and vertical to slightly curved or inclined. up to a meter in lenght. Diameter 3 to 7 mm, commonly repoeted up to 12mm. Burrow wsll distinct to indistinct.

Type specimen data
: U.S. National Museum of NaturalHistory (Smithsonian Institution) USNM 706400 , , Chickies Rock County Park, NNW of Columbia, Pennsylvania
Synonymy list
1840     Fucoides? (Skolithos) linearis — Haldeman, pp. 3
1925     Scolithus linearis Haldeman — Öpik, fig. I
1966     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Hallam & Swett, pp. 102, fig. 1:1-3
1971     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Korkutis, pp. 55, fig. 15:3, text fig. 31
1974     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Alpert, pp. 663
1975     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Alpert, pp. 510, fig. 1:6
1984     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Pickerill et al., fig. 6N
1984     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Howard & Frey, pp. 211, fig. 8B
1985     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Frey & Howard, pp. 391
1985     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Legg, pp. 161, fig. 4B
1986     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Clausen & Vilhjalmsson, pp. 60
1996     Skolithos linearis Haldeman 1840 — Nielsen et al., pp. 125, fig. Fig.9B
1997     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Jensen, pp. 88, fig. 5A
2000     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Schlirf, pp. 151, fig. 1:1-2, text fig. 6
2004     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Uchman et al., pp. 78, fig. 7
2005     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Mángano et al., pp. 656
2012     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Hofmann et al., pp. 935
2018     Skolithos linearis Haldeman, 1840 — Knaust et al., pp. 21, fig. 5-9, 10A; 11A
Selection of related publications
Nielsen, J. K., Hansen, K. S., Simonsen, L. 1996. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Robbedale Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 43, 115-131.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 56, 1-2, 51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian. Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform, pp. 49-82.
Mens, K. A., Pirrus, E. A. 1977. Stratotypes of the Cambrian Formations of Estonia.
Müürisepp, K. 1958. Die Beshaffenheit der unteren Grenze der Packerort-Stufe von Packerort bis zum Sjass-Fluss. ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi uurimused III, 55-80. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused III, pp. 55-80.
Öpik, A. 1925. Beitrag zur Stratigraphie und Fauna des estnischen Unter-Kambriums (Eophyton-Sandstein). Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 3, 1-19.