Eunicida Dales, 1963


Taxon ID: 62 / 2013-11-09
Belongs to:
et: skolekodondid; fi: skolekodontit; sv: scolecodonter; 
Stratigraphic range: Ülem-Kambrium (endine liigestus) Tänapäev (within ca. 499.0–0.0 million years)
Baltoscandian species (in database):
See also: Wikipedia page    Encyclopedia of Life page    Naturforskaren   
Taxon overview

Polychaete worms of the order Eunicida possess microscopic jaws, called scolecodonts, that are common in the fossil record (unlike the soft-bodied worms themselves). 

In Baltoscandian Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks the scolecodonts are well preserved and better studied than any other place in the world. They can sometimes be found on bedding planes but far larger collections can be obtained by acid extraction technique. Thus scolecodonts belong to acid-resistant microfossils, together with chitinozoans, conodonts and acritarchs.

Selection of related publications
Eriksson, M. E., Parry, L. A. & Rudkin, D. M. 2017. Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ – gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete. Scientific Reports 7, 43061. DOI:10.1038/srep43061
Hints, O., Tonarová, P., Eriksson, M.E., Rubinstein, C.V., de la Puente, G.S. 2017. Early Middle Ordovician scolecodonts from northwestern Argentina and the emergence of labidognath polychaete jaw apparatuses. Palaeontology 60, 4, 583-593. DOI:10.1111/pala.12303
Moutinho, L. P., Nascimento, S., Scomazzon, A. K. & Lemos, V. B. 2016. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower – Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 72, 76-94. DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2016.06.011
Hints, O., Tonarová, P. & Desrochers, A. 2016. Late Ordovician jaw-bearing polychaetes from Anticosti Island, eastern Canada, and their biogeographic significance. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 53, 7, 731-738. DOI:10.1139/cjes-2015-0222
Tonarová, P., Hints, O., Königshof, P., Suttner, T.J., Kido, E., Da Silva A.C., Pas, D. 2016. Middle Devonian jawed polychaete fauna from the type Eifel area, western Germany, and its biogeographical and evolutionary affinities. Papers in Palaeontology 2, 2, 295-310. DOI:10.1002/spp2.1041
Hints, O., Paris, F. & Al-Hajri, S. 2015. Late Ordovician scolecodonts from the Qusaiba-1 core hole, central Saudi Arabia, and their paleogeographical affinities. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 212, 1, 85-96. DOI:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2014.08.013
Tonarová, P., Hints, O. & Eriksson, M.E. 2013. Impact of the Silurian Ireviken Event on polychaete faunas: new insights from the Viki drill core, western Estonia. GFF 136, 1, 270-274. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2013.862855
Eriksson, M. E., Hints, O. & Bergman, C. F. 2012. Kingnites diamondi gen. et sp. nov., an exceptionally large Silurian paulinitid (Annelida; Polychaeta) from shallow marine settings of Baltoscandia. GFF 134, 3, 217-224. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2012.704066
Vinn, O., Kupriyanova, E. K. & Kiel, S. 2012. Systematics of serpulid tubeworms (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Cretaceous and Cenozoic hydrocarbon-seep deposits in North America and Europe. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Abhandlungen 265, 3, 315-325. DOI:10.1127/0077-7749/2012/0271
Hints, O. & Eriksson, M. 2010. Ordovician polychaeturid polychaetes: Taxonomy, distribution and palaeoecology. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55, 2, 309-320. DOI:10.4202/app.2009.0086
Truuver, K. 2009. Skolekodondid Kalana karjääris. Juh O. Tinn. magistritöö, pp. 1-59.
Hints, O. 2008. Kaljoprion - a new enigmatic jawed polychaete genus from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 57, 4, 256-259. DOI:10.3176/earth.2008.4.05
Hints, L., Hints, O., Nemliher, R. & Nõlvak, J. 2007. Hulterstad brachiopods and associated faunas in the Vormsi Stage (Upper Ordovician, Katian) of the Lelle core, Central Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 3, 131-142.
Rubel, M., Hints, O., Männik, P., Meidla, T., Nestor, V., Sarv, L. & Sibul, I. 2007. Lower Silurian biostratigraphy of the Viirelaid core, western Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 4, 193-204. DOI:10.3176/earth.2007.01
Hints, O. & Eriksson, M. E. 2007. Diversification and biogeography of scolecodont-bearing polychaetes in the Ordovician. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254, 1-2, 95-114. DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.02.029
Hints, O., Killing, M., Männik, P. & Nestor, V. 2006. Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 55, 2, 128-155.
Hints, O. & Nõlvak, J. 2006. Early Ordovician scolecodonts and chitinozoans from Tallinn, North Estonia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 139, 1-4, 189-209. DOI:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.01.004
Eriksson, M. 2001. Silurian Ramphoprionid polychaetes from Gotland, Sweden. Journal of Paleontology 75, 5, 993-1015. DOI:10.1017/S0022336000039901
Hints, O. 2000. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 113, 1-3, 41-55. DOI:10.1016/S0034-6667(00)00051-8
Hints, O. 1999. Two new polychaete families from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia. Palaeontology 42, 5, 897-906. DOI:10.1111/1475-4983.00101
Hints, O. 1998. Late Viruan (Ordovician) polychaete jaws from North Estonia and the St. Petersburg Region. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 43, 3, 471-516.
Eriksson, M. 1998. Dubichaetaspis bergmani gen. et sp. n., a facies controlled polychaete from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. GFF 120, 1, 21-25. DOI:10.1080/11035899801201021
Hints, O. 1998. Revision of the Ordovician and Silurian ramphoprionid polychaetes from Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 47, 2, 77-85.
Eriksson, M. 1997. Lower Silurian polychaetaspid polychaetes from Gotland, Sweden. GFF 119, 3, 213-230. DOI:10.1080/11035899709546480
Bergman, C. F. 1989. Silurian paulinitid polychaetes from Gotland. Fossils and Strata 25, 1-128.
Männil, R. & Zaslavskaya, N. 1985. Silurian polychaetes from the northern Siberia. Труды Института геологии и геофизики СО АН СССР 615, 98-119. Phanerozoic Microfauna of Siberia and adjacent regions, pp. 98-119.
Boyer, P. S. 1975. Polychaete jaw apparatuses from the Devonian of central Ohio. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 20, 2, 425-435.
Öpik, A. 1927. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Kukruse-(C2-)Stufe in Eesti. II. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 10, 1-35.