Ichnofossils

Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932

Taxon description

Buatois et al., 2017

2.59. Cylindrical vertical to oblique borings.

Bhattacharaya & Banerjee, 2014

Diagnosis.—Included in Trypanites are simple unbranched vertical to sinuous borings with a single opening to the surface; with or without a flared entrance. Circular in cross section; generally isodiametric throughout the entire length but may terminate in a small cupulate chamber.

Discussion. —Pouch-shaped borings excluding those characteristic of acrothoracican cirripeds and bivalves. From a single entrance, the boring may extend as a long cylindrical tube with a circular cross section. Borings in all substrates are included, with no restriction to geological age. Bromley (1972) revised the nomenclature of Trypanites, which involved the grouping of seven different ichnogenera (Teredolites Leymerie, Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, Nygmites Mägdefrau, Specus Stephenson, Martesites Vitalis, Vermiforichnus Cameron, and Conchifera Muller) into synonymy. This scheme, however, was far-reaching and has gained little following. Sub­sequently, Bromley and D'Alessandro (1983) included single entranced borings with flattened cross sections in the ichnogenus Caulostrepsis Clarke. This included the forms Polydorites Douville, Dodecaceria Voigt (non Orstead), and Ramosulcichnus Hillmer and Schulz, which were placed in synonymy with Try­panites by both Bromley (1972) and Pemberton et al. (1980). Likewise, Kelly and Bromley (1984) removed Gastrochaenolites and Teredolites (including Martesites) from Trypanites, restrict­ing them to pouch-shaped borings of bivalve origin in lithic and xylic substrates, respectively. Included in the above synonymy of Trypanites are forms designated as Spiracavites by Chiplonkar and Ghare (1977) and Cylindrocavites by Ghare (1982). These forms are similar in most respects to Trypanites.

Knaust, 2012a

Unbranched, cylindrical

Blissett & Pickerill, 2007

Diagnosis– (Modified after Bromley & D’Alessandro, 1987, p. 403.) Single entrance, cylindrical or sub-cylindrical, unbranched boring in lithic or biogenic substrates having circular cross-section throughout length. The axes of the boring may be straight, curved or irregular.

Taylor & Wilson, 2003

Remark: Cylindrical, unbranched boring; length up to 50 times width. Some Ordovician examples described by Kobluk and Nemcsok (1982) contain scolecodonts suggesting that the borings were made by polychaete worms.

Selection of related publications
Toom, U., Vinn, O. & Hints, O. 2018. Ordovician and Silurian ichnofossils from carbonate facies in Estonia: A collection-based review. Palaeoworld , 1-22. DOI:10.1016/j.palwor.2018.07.001
Vinn, O. & Toom, U. 2016. Borings in phosphatized Cambrian siltstone pebbles, Estonia (Baltica). Geological Magazine 153, 4, 635-642. DOI:10.1017/S001675681500076X
Vinn, O. & Toom, U. 2016. A sparsely encrusted hardground with abundant Trypanites boring from the Llandovery of the Velise River, western Estonia (Baltica). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 65, 1, 19-26. DOI:10.3176/earth.2016.01
Vinn, O. & Toom, U. 2016. Bioerosion of inorganic hard substrates in the Silurian of Estonia (Baltica). GFF 138, 2, 306-310. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2015.1076513
Vinn, O., Wilson, M. A. & Toom, U. 2015. Bioerosion of Inorganic Hard Substrates in the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica). PLOS ONE , 10(/), 1-17. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134279
Vinn, O. & Toom, U. 2015. Some encrusted hardgrounds from the Ordovician of Estonia (Baltica). Carnets de Géologie 15, 7, 63-70. DOI:10.4267/2042/57951
Vinn, O. & Wilson, M. A. 2012. Encrustation and bioerosion on late Sheinwoodian (Wenlock, Silurian) stromatoporoids from Saaremaa, Estonia. Carnets de Géologie 12, 07, 183-191. DOI:10.4267/2042/47551
Vinn, O. & Wilson, M. A. 2010. Occurrence of giant borings of Osprioneides kampto in the lower Silurian (Sheinwoodian) stromatoporoids of Saaremaa, Estonia. Ichnos 17, 3, 166-171. DOI:10.1080/10420940.2010.502478
Vinn, O. & Wilson, M. A. 2010. Early large borings in a hardground of Floian-Dapingian age (Early and Middle Ordovician) in northeastern Estonia (Baltica). Carnets de Géologie 10, 4, 1-4. DOI:10.4267/2042/35594
Hints, L. & Miidel, A. 2008. Ripple marks as indicators of Late Ordovician sedimentary environments in Northwest Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 57, 1, 11-22. DOI:10.3176/earth.2008.1.02
Wyse Jackson, P. N. & Key, M. M. 2007. Borings in trepostome bryozoans from The Ordovician of Estonia: two ichnogenera produced by a single marker, a case of host morphology control. Lethaia 40, 3, 237-252. DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2007.00021.x
Vinn, O. 2005. The tube ultrastructure of serpulids (Annelida, Polychahaeta) Pentaditrypa subtorquata, Cretaceous, and Nogrobs cf. vertebralis, Jurassic, from Germany. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 54, 4, 260-265.
Vinn, O. 2005. The distribution of worm borings in brachiopod shells from the Caradoc Oil Shale of Estonia. Carnets de Géologie 5, article 3, 1-11. DOI:10.4267/2042/2454