Heliolitina Frech, 1897


Taxon overview

Suborder HELIOLITINA, Upper Ordovician - Middle Devonian. These corals are very different from other tabulate corals, that they were regarded as separate subclass from tabulata. They are devided into Helioliticae (coenenchymal tissue consists of tubuli, Fig. 3A), Proporicae (coenenchymal tissue consists of dissepiments, Fig. 3B) and Coccoseridicae (primitive corals, which have thickened trabecular skeleton, Fig. 3C). Heliolitids are abundant in the cliffs of northern Saaremaa (Propora tubulata, Heliolites interstinctus). Among the oldest heliolitids in the world are Protaraea procella from the Vasalemma Nordkalk quarry and Protaraea diffluens from the outcrops of East-Estonia. 

Selection of related publications
Vinn, O., Liang, K. & Toom, U. 2017. Endobiotic rugose coral symbionts in Silurian tabulate corals from Estonia (Baltica). Palaios 32, 3, 158-165. DOI:10.2110/palo.2016.084
Liang, K., Lee, D.-J., Elias, R. J., Pärnaste, H. & Mõtus, M.-A. 2013. Growth characteristics of Protoheliolites norvegicus (Tabulata; Upper Ordovician; Estonia). Palaeontology 56, 4, 867-891. DOI:10.1111/pala.12022
Vinn, O. & Mõtus, M.-A. 2012. New endobiotic cornulitid and Cornulites sp. aff. Cornulites celatus (Cornulitida, Tentaculita) from the Katian of Vormsi Island, Estonia. GFF 134, 1, 3-6. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2011.647067
Mõtus, M.-A. & Zaika, Y. 2012. The oldest heliolitids from the early Katian of the East Baltic region. GFF 134, 3, 225-234. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2012.721805
Vinn, O. & Mõtus, M.-A. 2012. Diverse early endobiotic coral symbiont assemblage from the Katian (Late Ordovician) of Baltica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 321-322, , 137-141. DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.028
Mõtus, M.-A. & Vinn, O. 2009. The worm endosymbionts in tabulate corals from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58, 3, 185-192. DOI:10.3176/earth.2009.3.03
Vinn, O. & Mõtus, M.-A. 2008. The earliest endosymbiotic mineralized tubeworms from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine. Journal of Paleontology 82, 2, 409-414. DOI:10.1666/07-056.1
Mõtus, M.-A. & Hints, O. (eds) 2007. 10th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera. Excursion B2: Lower Paleozoic geology and corals of Estonia. Excursion Guidebook.
Mõtus, M.-A. 2006. Intraspecific variation in Wenlock tabulate corals from Saaremaa (Estonia) and its taxonomic implications. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 55, 1, 24-42.
Jeppsson, L., Calner, M. & Eriksson, M. 2005. Locality descriptions . The Dynamic Silurian Earth. Subcommision on Silurian Stratigraphy Field Meeting 2005. , pp. 22-47.
Young, G. A. & Kershaw, S. 2005. Classification and controls of internal banding in Palaeozoic stromatoporoids and colonial corals. Palaeontology 48, 3, 623-651. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2005.00480.x
Mõtus, M.-A. 2004. Tabulate corals from the Lower Silurian of Jämtland (Sweden). GFF 126, 4, 339-352. DOI:10.1080/11035890401264339
Dixon, O. A. 1996. Heliolitine corals of the upper Douro Formation (upper Silurian), Canadian Arctic Islands.. Journal of Paleontology 70, 5, 718-740. DOI:10.1017/S0022336000023787
Bondarenko, O. B. 1992. The system of heliolitoids.
Serezhnikova, E. A. 1992. New Heliolitoidea from the lower Silurian of Central Kazakhstan. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 1, 19-26.
Neuman, B. & Kershaw, S. 1991. The Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. VII International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria, Münster, Germany. Excursion A1, pp. 111.
Young, G. A. & Scrutton, C. T. 1991. Growth form in Silurian heliolitid corals: the influence of genetics and environment. Paleobiology 17, 4, 369-387. DOI:10.1017/S009483730001071X
Bondarenko, O. B. & Gataulina, G. M. 1986. Revision of heliolitids of Eichwald collection. Voprosy paleontologii , 9, 5-17.
Sokolov, B. S. & Tesakov, J. I. 1984. Populational, biocenotic and biostratigraphic analysis tabulates. Model of Podolia.
Klaamann, E. 1984. Heliolitidis in the East Baltic Late Silurian coral communities. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 33, 2, 63-69.
Bondarenko, O. B. 1983. Heliolitoidea from the Ordovician of South-East of Latvia. . Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou 58, 6, 136-146.
Klaamann, E. 1983. The Tabulate corals of Jaani and Jaagarahu Stages (Wenlockian, Estonia) and their Biozones. Lower Paleozoic paleontology of Baltics and Podolia. Ed: Klaamann, E., pp. 3-40.
Bondarenko, O. B. 1982. Heliolitoidea from the Upper Ordovician drillcores of Belarus. Moscow University Geology Bulletin , 4, 35-42.
Nestor, H. 1981. The relationships between stromatoporoida and heliolitids. Lethaia 14, 1, 21-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1981.tb01069.x
Bondarenko, O. B. & Minzhin, Ch. 1981. Variability and morphogenesis of the Ordovician tabulate coral Propora speciosa . Paleontologicheski Zhurnal , 1, 10-20.
Hill, D. 1981. Rugosa and Tabulata. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata. Supplement 1., pp. F1-F378.
Klaamann, E. 1979. Tabulate and heliolitid corals. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 762, 81-85. Lower Wenlock faunal and floral dynamics - Vattenfallet section, Gotland. Eds: Jaanusson V., Laufeld S. & Skoglund R., pp. 81-85.
Stel, J. H. & de Coo, J. C. M. 1977. The Silurian Upper Burgsvik and Lower Hamra-Sundre Beds, Gotland. Scripta Geologica 44, 1-43.
Bondarenko, O. B. 1971. The Volume of the New Family Stelliporellidae (Heliolitida). Paleozoic Tabulata and Heliolitoidea of the USSR, pp. 179-178.
Klaamann, E. 1971. Über einige Korallen aus der Bohrung von File Haidar (Gotland, Schweden). Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 20, 1, 73-77.
Kaljo, D. & Klaamann, E. 1965. The fauna of the Portrane limestone, III. Corals. Bulletin of the Britich Museum (Natural History) Geology 10, 11, 415-434.
Spjeldnaes, N. 1964. Two compound corals from the Tretaspis beds of the Oslo-Asker District. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 44, 1, 1-10.
Klaamann, E. R. 1961. The Wenlockian tabulata and heliolitida of Estonia. Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 6, 69-112. ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused VI, pp. 69-112.
Sokolov, B. S. 1955. Tabulates from the Palaeozoic of the European part of the USSR. Introduction.. Trudy VNIGRI, pp. 1-328.
Hill, D. 1953. The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway. 2. Some Rugose and Tabulate Corals.. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 31, , 143-168.
Kiaer, J. 1908. Das Obersilur im Kristianiagebiete. Eine stratigraphisch-faunistiche Untersuchung. . Videnskabsselskabets skrifter 2, 1-596.
Kiaer, J. 1904. Revision der mittelsilurischen Heliolithiden und neue Beiträge zur Stammesgeschichte derselben. Videnskabsselskabets skrifter 2, 10, 1-58.
Lindström, G. 1899. Remarks on the Heliolitidae. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 32, 1, 1-140.
Kiaer, J. 1899. Die Korallenfaunen der Etage 5 des norwegischen Silursystems. Palaeontographica 46, 1-60.
Schmidt, Fr. 1858. Untersuchungen über die silurische Formation von Ehstland, Nord-Livland und Oesel. Archiv für die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands ser 1, bd 2, 1-250.
Eichwald, E. 1854. Die Grauwackenschichten von Liv- und Estland. Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou 27, 1, 1-111.