Bivalvia

Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758

Bivalves

Taxon ID: 55 / 2018-11-24
Belongs to:
et: karbid; fi: simpukat; sv: musslor; ru: Двустворчатые; 
Stratigraphic range: Kambrium Kvaternaar (within ca. 542.0–0.0 million years)
Baltoscandian species (in database):
See also: Wikipedia page    Tree of Life page    Encyclopedia of Life page    Naturforskaren    Estonian eBiodiversity    Paleobiology Database   
Taxon overview

Bivalvia is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs with laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell in two hinged parts. The majority are filter feeders and have no head or radula. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment on the seabed, where they are safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. A few bore into wood, clay or stone and live inside these substances. Some bivalves, such as the scallops, can swim.
The shell of a bivalve is composed of calcium carbonate, and consists of two, usually similar, parts called valves. These are joined together along one edge by a flexible ligament that, in conjunction with interlocking "teeth" on each of the valves, forms the hinge. This arrangement allows the shell to be opened and closed without the two halves becoming disarticulated. The shell is typically bilaterally symmetrical, with the hinge lying in the sagittal plane. Adult shell sizes vary from fractions of a millimetre to over a metre in length, but the majority of species do not exceed 10 cm.
Bivalves appear in the fossil record first in the early Cambrian more than 500 million years ago.

Selection of related publications
Křiž, J. 2008. A new bivalve community from the lower Ludlow of the Prague Basin (Perunica, Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences 83, 3, 237-280. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.2008.03.237
Isakar, M. & Sinitsyna, I. 1993. A new species Megalomoidea walliseri (Bivalvia) from the Silurian of Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 42, 3, 124-126.
Isakar, M. 1991. Harjuan (Late Ordovician) new Bivalves and a new Gastropod from North Estonia. Acta et Comentationes Universitatis Tartuensis 934, 12, 43-60. Töid geoloogia alalt, XII. Eesti Ordoviitsiumi paleontoloogia ja stratigraafia, pp. 43-60.
Isakar, M. 1990. Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Field Meeting Estonia 1990. An Excursion Guidebook. Eds: Kaljo, D. & Nestor, H., pp. 64-65.
Kisselev, G. N., Sinitsyna, I. N., Isakar, M. A., Mironova, M. G. & Saladzhius, V. Y. 1990. Atlas of Upper Ordovician and Silurian molluscs from the nort-western part of East-European platform. .
Liljedahl, L. 1989. Fylgia baltica gen. et sp. nov. (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from the Silurian of Gotland. GFF 111, 4, 339-345. DOI:10.1080/11035898909453132
Isakar, M. & Sinitsyna, I. 1985. Redescription of E. Eichwald's Ordovician bivalve species. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 34, 2, 46-54.
Isakar, M. 1985. New bivalve genus Kogulanychia from the Upper Silurian of Estonia. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 34, 1, 30-31.
Sinicyna, I. N. 1983. New genus of Bivalve molluscs from the Middle Ordovician of north-east of East-European platform.
Öpik, A. 1930. Brachiopoda Protremata der estländischen ordovizischen Kukruse-Stufe. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 20, 1-261.
Bekker, H. 1924. The Devonian Rocks of the Irboska district (S. E. Estonia) with the description of a new cemented brachiopod. Eesti Loodusteaduse Arhiiv 10, 1, 1-55.
Bekker, H. 1921. The Kuckers Stage of the Ordovician Rocks in N-E Estonia. Acta Univ. Tartu A II, 1, 1-90.