Echinodermata

Echinodermata Bruguière, 1791

Echinoderms

Taxon ID: 93 / 2018-03-05
Belongs to:
et: okasnahksed; sv: tagghudingar; fi: piikkinahkaiset; 
Stratigraphic range: Kambrium Tänapäev (within ca. 542.0–0.0 million years)
Baltoscandian species (in database):
See also: Wikipedia page    Tree of Life page    Encyclopedia of Life page    Estonian eBiodiversity    Paleobiology Database   
Selection of related publications
Cole, S. R. & Toom, U. 2018. New camerate crinoid genera from the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of Estonia: evolutionary origin of family Opsiocrinidae and a phylogenetic assessment of Ordovician Monobathrida. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology , DOI:10.1080/14772019.2018.1447519
Wright, D. F. & Toom, U. 2017. New crinoids from the Baltic region (Estonia): fossil tip-dating phylogenetics constrains the origin and Ordovician–Silurian diversification of the Flexibilia (Echinodermata). Palaeontology 60, 6, 893-910. DOI:10.1111/pala.12324
Rozhnov, S. V. 2016. Aboral Nervous System in Two Ordovician Crinoids: Reconstruction and Comparison of Baltic Pentamerocrinus Jaekel and Grammocrinus Eichwald. Paleontological Journal , 2, 58-67. DOI:10.1134/S0031030116020064
Ausich, W. I. & Wilson, M. A. 2016. Llandovery (early Silurian) crinoids from Hiiumaa Island, western Estonia. Journal of Paleontology , 1, 1-10. DOI:10.1017/jpa.2016.120
Paul, C. R. C. & Rozhnov, S. V. 2016. Revision of Scoliocystis (Rhombifera: Echinoencrinitidae) and related cystoid genera. Paleontological Journal 50, 3, 255-275. DOI:10.1134/S0031030116030059
Ausich, W. I., Rozhnov, S. V. & Kammer, T. W. 2015. Iocrinid Crinoids from the Ordovician of the Baltic Region, Estonia. Paleontological Journal 49, 2, 145-152. DOI:10.1134/S0031030115020069
Ausich, W. I., Wilson, M. A. & Vinn, O. 2015. Wenlock and Pridoli (Silurian) crinoids from Saaremaa, western Estonia (Phylum Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology 89, 1, 72-81. DOI:10.1017/jpa.2014.6
Reich, M. & Kutscher, M. 2014. A new ophiocistoid (Echinodermata) from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. GFF 136, 1, 1-5. DOI:10.1080/11035897.2013.861863
Tinn, O. & Ainsaar, L. 2014. Asterozoan pedicellariae and ossicles revealed from the Middle Ordovician of Baltica.. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59, 2, 353-358. DOI:10.4202/app.2012.0034
Rozhnov, S. V. 2013. A new Genus of Parablastoidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of Ladoga Glint on the Volkhov River (Ladoga Region). Paleontological Journal 47, 2, 154-161. DOI:10.1134/S003103011302010X
Ausich, W. I., Wilson, M. A. & Vinn, O. 2012. Crinoids from the Silurian of Western Estonia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57, 3, 613-631. DOI:10.4202/app.2010.0094
Rozhnov, S. V. 2012. Reinterpretation of Baltic Ordovician Heckerites multistellatus Rozhnov, 1987 as a possible paracrinoid based on new material. Zoosymposia 7, 307-316. DOI:10.11646/zoosymposia.7.1.28
Vinn, O. & Wilson, M. A. 2012. Encrustation and bioerosion on late Sheinwoodian (Wenlock, Silurian) stromatoporoids from Saaremaa, Estonia. Carnets de Géologie 12, 07, 183-191. DOI:10.4267/2042/47551
Rozhnov, S. V. 2007. New data on perittocrinids and hybocrinids (Crinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of the Baltic region . Annales de Paléontologie 93, 4, 261-276. DOI:10.1016/j.annpal.2007.09.004
Blake, D. B. & Rozhnov, S. 2007. Aspects of life mode among Ordovician asteroids: Implications of new specimen from Baltica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52, 3, 519-533.
Shackleton, J. D. 2005. Skeletal homologies, phylogeny and classification of the earliest Asterozoan echinoderms. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3, 1, 29-114. DOI:10.1017/S1477201905001525
Hansen, T., Bruton, D. L. & Jakobsen. L. 2005. Starfish from the Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 85, 3, 209-216.
Rozhnov, S. V. & Fedorov, P. V. 2001. A New Cryptocrinid Genus (Eocrinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Bioherm-related Volkhov Facies (Late Arenigian, Ordovician), Leningrad Region. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 6, , 42-49.
Stukalina, G. A. 2000. Silurian crinoids of Siberian Platform. Transactions of the Paleontological Institute (PIN) 278, 1-108.
Rozhnov, S. V. 1997. Unusual Eocrinoid (?) (Echinodermata) from Volkhov Horizon (Early Ordovician, Arenig) of St-Petersburg Region. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal , 1, 59-64.
Rozhnov, S. V. & Jefferies, R. P. S. 1996. A new stem-chordate solute from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia. Geobios 29, 1, 91-109. DOI:10.1016/S0016-6995(96)80074-X
Arendt, Yu. A. & Rozhnov, S. V. 1995. On the hemistreptocrinoids (Echinodermata). Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 1, 119-122.
Rozhnov, S. V. & Kushlina, V. B. 1994. New interpretation of bolboporids (Echinodermata, ?Eocrinoidea). Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 1994, 2, 59-65.
Rozhnov, S. V. 1991. A new eocrinoid order from Lower Ordovician. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal , 2, 34-44.
Rozhnov, S. V. 1990. A new representative of classis Stylophora (Echinodermata). Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 4, 37-48.
Rozhnov, S. 1990. Morphology and systematic position of Middle Ordovician Virucrinus Rozhnov gen. nov. (Crinoidea, Inadunata, Disparida) from North Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology 39, 2, 68-75.
Stukalina, G. A. & Hints, L. 1989. On the morphology and systematics of Achradocystites (Paracrinoidea). Fossil and Recent Echinoderm researches. Kaljo, D. L. (Eds.), pp. 58-72.
Schallreuter, R. 1989. Ordovician Echinoids from Erratic Boulders. Geschiebekunde aktuell 5, 1, 3-16.
Rozhnov, S. V., Männil, R. M. & Nestor, H. E. 1989. Pisocrinid crinoids from the Lower Silurian of the East Baltic. Fossil and Recent Echinoderm researches. Kaljo, D. L. (Eds.), pp. 73-80.
Rozhnov, S. V. 1989. New data about rhipidocystids (Eocrinoidea). Fossil and Recent Echinoderm researches. Kaljo, D. L. (Eds.), pp. 38-57.
Kõrts, A. 1989. Brachiolar plates of Bockia (Eocrinoidea) from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia and Leningrad Region. Fossil and Recent Echinoderm researches. Kaljo, D. L. (Eds.), pp. 34-37.
Hints, L., Rozhnov, S. & Solovjev, A. 1989. Peculiar crinoid holdfasts from the Ordovician of Estonia. Fossil and Recent Echinoderm researches. Kaljo, D. L. (Eds.), pp. 134-138.
Stukalina, G. A. 1988. Studies in Paleozoic crinoid-columnals and -stems. Palaeontographica 204, 1-66.
Donovan, S. K. & Franzén-Bengtson, C. 1988. Myelodactylid crinoid columnals from the Lower Visby Beds (Llandoverian) of Gotland. GFF 110, 1, 69-79. DOI:10.1080/11035898809453122
Rozhnov, S. V. 1988. Morphology and systematic position of the Lower Ordovician crinoids. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal , 2, 67-79.
Männil, Ralf 1987. Explanatory notes to the stratigraphical chemes of the Ordovician deposits. Resolutions of the interdepartmental stratigraphical conference on the East European Platform in 1984, with regional stratigraphical schemes, pp. 17-57.
Stukalina, G. & Hints, L. 1987. Columnals of echinoderms with condylial articulation ( the Ordovician of the Baltic area). Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 36, 3, 104-112.
Berg-Madsen, V. 1987. A new cyclocystoid from the Lower Ordovician of Öland, Sweden. Palaeontology 30, 1, 105-116.
Männil, Ralf 1987. Ordovician cyclocystoids of Baltic. Problems of phylogenese and taxonomy of echinoderms, pp. 71-72.
Rozhnov, S. V., Männil, R. M. & Nestor, H. E. 1987. Pisocrinids from the Silurian of Baltics. Problems of phylogenese and taxonomy of echinoderms, pp. 79-80.
Stukalina, G. A. 1986. Laws of historical development of crinoidea in the early and middle Paleozoic of the USSR.
Donovan, S. K. 1986. A new genus of Inadunate crinoid with unique stem morphology from the Ashgill of Sweden. Palaeontology 29, 2, 235-242.
Donovan, S. K. 1984. Ristnacrinus and the earliest myelodactylid from the Ashgillian Boda Limestone of Sweden. GFF 109, 4, 347-356. DOI:10.1080/11035898509454663
Hynda, V. A. 1984. Columns of the new Ordovician crinoids of the south-western margin of the East-European platform. Paleontologicheskii sbornik, 21, pp. 58-63.
Bockelie, J. F. 1984. The Diploporita of the Oslo region, Norway. Palaeontology 27, 1, 1-68.
Franzén-Bengtson, C. 1983. Radial perforations in crinoid stems from the Silurian of Gotland. Lethaia 16, 4, 291-302. DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1983.tb02012.x
Bockelie, J. F. & Paul, C. R. C. 1983. Cyathotheca suecica and its bearing on the evolution of the Edrioasteroidea. Lethaia 16, 4, 257-264. DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1983.tb02006.x
Paul, C. R. C. & Bockelie, J. F. 1983. Evolution and Functional Morphology of the Cystoid Sphaeronites in Britain and Scandinavia. Palaeontology 26, 4, 687-734.
Franzén, C. 1983. Ecology and taxonomy of Silurian crinoids from Gotland. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis 665, 1-31.
Franzén, C. 1982. A Silurian crinoid thanatotope from Gotland. GFF 103, 4, 469-490. DOI:10.1080/11035898209453725
Bockelie, J. F. 1981. Symmetry and ambulacral pattern of the rhombiferan superfamily Caryocystitida and the relationship to other Blastozoa. GFF 103, 4, 491-498. DOI:10.1080/11035898209453726
Bockelie, J. F. 1981. The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway, 30. The eocrinoid genera Cryptocrinites, Rhipidocystis and Bockia. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 61, , 123-147.
Bockelie, J. F. 1981. A re-evaluation of the Ordovician cystoid Stichocystis Jaekel and the taxonomic implications. GFF 103, 1, 51--59. DOI:10.1080/11035898109455204
Rozhnov, S. V. 1981. Crinoids of superfamily Pisocrinacea.
Rõõmusoks, A. 1981. Ordovician and Silurian Strophomenida of Estonia, III. Genus Thaerodonta Wang.. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 30, 2, 61-71.
Bockelie, J. F. 1981. Morphology, growth and taxonomy of the Ordovician rhombiferan Caryocystites. GFF 103, 4, 499-513. DOI:10.1080/11035898209453727
Bockelie, J. F. & Briskeby, P. I. 1980. The presence of a bothriocidarid (Echinoid) in the Ordovician of Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 60, 89-91.
Bockelie, J. F. & Briskeby, P. I. 1980. The presence of a bothriocidarid (Echinoid) in the Ordovician of Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 60, 89-91.
Franzén, C. 1979. Echinoderms. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning 73, 3, 216-224. Lower Wenlock faunal and floral dynamics - Vattenfallet section, Gotland. Eds: Jaanusson, V. et al., pp. 216-224.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. 1979. Stems of Paleozoic sea lilies of the Baltic area (Upper Ordovician). Collection papers "Problems Paleontology", pp. 94-100.
Stukalina, G. & Hints, L. 1979. New finds of Echinoderms in the Upper Viruan deposits of North Estonia. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. Geology 28, 1, 1-10.
Bockelie, J. F. 1979. Taxonomy, functional morphology and palaeoecology of the Ordovician cystoid family Hemicosmitidae. Palaeontology 22, 2, 363-406.
Bockelie, J. F. 1979. Celticystis n. gen., a gomphocystitid from the Silurian of Sweden. GFF 101, 2, 157-166. DOI:10.1080/11035897909452575
Stukalina, G. A. 1979. A new family of Ordovician crinoids. Paleontologicheski Zhurnal 4, 89-95.
Moore, R. C., Lane, N. G., Strimple, H. L., Sprinkle, J. & Fay, 1978. Inadunata. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part T. Echinodermata 2, pp. T520--T759.
Franzén, C. 1977. Crinoid holdfasts from the Silurian of Gotland. Lethaia 10, 3, 219-234. DOI:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1977.tb00617.x
Arendt, Yu. A. 1976. Ordovician echinodermata: Hemistreptocrinida. Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists. Geology 51, 2, 63-84.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. 1975. Crinoids of Ordovician/Silurian boundary beds in Podolia. Voprosy paleontologii VII, 124-144. Voprosy paleontologi, VII, pp. 124-144.
Bockelie, J. F. 1973. The Presence of Prunocystites (Cystoidea) in Stage 9e of Ringerike, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 53, 317-321.
Regnéll, G. 1973. Tidiga tagghudingar. Fauna och flora 4, 161-165.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. & Sizova, Y. N. 1971. Onto-genetic modifications of the stems of some Paleozoic crinoids (columnals - stems of sea lilies). Voprosy paleontologii VI, 33-40. Voprosy paleontologi, VI, pp. 33-40.
Rõõmusoks, A. 1970. Stratigraphy of the Viruan Series (Middle Ordovician) in Northern Estonia, I.
Jefferies, R. P. S., Joysey, K. A., Paul, C. R. C. & Ramsbottom, W. H. C. 1967. The Fossil Record a symposium with dokumentation. Chapter 21 Echinodermata:Pelmatozoa. The Fossil Record , pp. 565-581.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. 1966. Stems of Ordovician sea lilies from Baltics. Voprosy paleontologii V, 53-70. Voprosy paleontologi, V, pp. 53-70.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. 1964. Stems of Ordovician sea lilies of the Baltic area (Lower Ordovician). Voprosy paleontologii IV, 59-82. Voprosy paleontologi, IV, pp. 59-82.
Hecker, R. F. 1964. Phylum Echinodermata. Bases of paleontology, pp. 23-108.
Männil, R. M. 1962. The taxonomy and morphology of Bothriocidaris (Echinoidea). Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 9, 187-190. ENSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused IX, pp. 187-190.
Männil, R. M. 1959. New Representatives of Hoplocrinus from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia. Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli Toimetised 75, I, 82-97. Töid Eesti NSV geoloogia alalt, I, pp. 82-97.
Männil, Ralf 1958. Zur Stratigraphie der oberordovizischen Nabala-Stufe (FIa) in Estland. Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 2, 3-17. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused II, pp. 3-17.
Ubaghs, G. 1958. Recherches sur les Crinoïdes Camerata du Silurien de Gotland (Suède). Arkiv För Zoologi 11, 16, 259-306.
Hecker, R. F. 1958. New data on the genus Achradocystites (Echinodermata, Paracrinoidea). Trudy Instituta geologii AN ESSR 3, 145-163. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused III, pp. 145-163.
Hecker, E. L. & Hecker, R. F. 1957. A new species Protocrinites Eichwald. Yearbook of All-Union Paleontological Society XVI, 274-279.
Yeltyscheva, R. S. 1957. A new family of Paleozoic crinoids. Yearbook of All-Union Paleontological Society XVI, 218-234.
Ubaghs, G. 1956. Recherches sur les Crinoïdes Camerata du Silurien de Gotland (Suède). Arkiv För Zoologi 9, 26, 515-550.
Ubaghs, G. 1956. Recherches sur les Crinoïdes Camerata du Silurien de Gotland (Suède). Arkiv För Zoologi 2, 27, 551-572.
Regnéll, G. 1956. Silurian Echinoids from Gotland. Arkiv för kemi, mineralogi och geologi 2, 155-178.
Yakovlev, N. N. 1956. A revision of the characteristics of the genus Ristnacrinus Öpik. Yearbook of All-Union Paleontological Society XV, 155-157.
Regnéll, G. 1948. Echinoderms (hydrophoridae, ophiocistia) from the Ordovician (Upper Skiddavian) of the Oslo region. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 27, , 14-58.
Regnéll, G. 1948. Swedish Hybocrinida (Crinoidea Inadunata Disparata; Ordovician-Lower Silurian). Arkiv För Zoologi 40 A, 9, 1-27.
Regnéll, G. 1948. An Outline of the Succession and Migration of Non-Crinoid Pelmatozoan Faunas in the Lower Paleozoic of Scandinavia. Arkiv för kemi, mineralogi och geologi 26 A, 13, 1-55.
Regnéll, G. 1945. Non-Crinoid Peimatozoa from the Paleozoic of Sweden. A taxonomic study. Meddelanden från Lunds Geologisk-Mineralogiska Institution 108, 1-255.
Hecker, R. F. 1940. Ordovician and Devonian echinoderms. Carpoidea, Eocrinoidea and Ophiocistia from Ordovicium of Leningrad district and Estonia . Transactions of the Paleontological Institute (PIN) 9, 4, 5-82.
Hecker, R. F. 1939. Pyrgocystis from the Ordovician of Leningrad Province. Известия Академии Наук СССР. Серия биологическая , , 241-246.
Hecker, R. F. 1938. New data on Rhipidocystis Jkl (order Digitata n. o., class Carpoidea Jkl) and on a new genus Bockia (subclass Eocrinoidea Jkl, class Crinoidea Mill.) from the Ordovician of Leningrad province, USSR, and Estonia. Dokladõ Akademii nauk SSSR 19, 5, 421-425.
Öpik, A. 1935. Hoplocrinus - eine stiellose Seelilie aus dem Ordovizium Estlands. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 43, 1-15. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused Nr 43, pp. 1-15.
Öpik, A. 1935. Amphipora ramosa (Phill.) in the Marine Devonian of Estonia. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused , 41, 1-7.
Phleger, F. B. 1935. Some Ordovician cystids from Russia. Harvard University Museum of Comparative Zoology Special Publication LXXVI, 5, 193-201.
Öpik, A. 1934. Ristnacrinus, a new Ordovician crinoid from Estonia. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused , 40, 1-7.
Öpik, A. 1934. Üks tsüstiid Eesti Megalaspislubjakivist. Eesti Loodus , 1, 17-20.
Mortensen, T. 1930. Bothriocidaris and the Ancestry of Echinoids. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn 90, , 313-352.
Teichert, C. 1928. Stratigraphische und paläontologische Untersuchungen im unteren Gotlandium (Tamsal-Stufe) des westlichen Estland und der Insel Dagö.. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Monatshefte: Abt. B. Geologie, Paläontologie 60, 1-112.
Jaekel, O. 1927. Über Tormoblastus n.g., eine coronate Blastoidee, aus dem Ordovicium Schwedens. Arkiv För Zoologi 19A, 4, 1-6.
Öpik, A. 1925. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Kukruse-(C2-)Stufe in Eesti. I. Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused , 1-18.
Bekker, H. 1925. Lühike ülevaade Eesti geoloogiast. (Eozoiline ja paleozoiline ladekond). Eesti. Maa, rahvas, kultuur, pp. 31-61.
Bekker, H. 1924. The Devonian Rocks of the Irboska district (S. E. Estonia) with the description of a new cemented brachiopod. Eesti Loodusteaduse Arhiiv 10, 1, 1-55.
Hecker, R. F. 1923. Echinosphaeritidae of the Silurian of Russia. Trav. Mus. Géol. Min. Pierre le Grand Acad. Sci. Russie IV, 1, 1-63.
Bekker, H. 1921. The Kuckers Stage of the Ordovician Rocks in NE Estonia. Acta Univ. Tartu A II, 1, 1-90.
Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3, 1, 1-128. DOI:10.1007/BF03190413
Jaekel, O. 1902. Ueber verschiedene Wege phylogenetischer Entwicklung. Verhandlungen des V. Internationalen Zoologen-Congresses zu Berlin. 12-16 August 1901, pp. 1058-1117.
Jaekel, O. 1900. Über einen neuen Pentacrinodeen-Typus aus dem Obersilur. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft , 480-487.
Grewingk, C. 1867. Ueber Hoplocrinus dipentas und Baerocrinus Ungerni. Archiv für die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands I, 4, 100-114. Archiv für die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands. Erster Serie, Bd. IV, pp. 100-114.