Ichnofossils

Skolithos Haldeman, 1840

Taxon description

Fernández & Pazos, 2012

Diagnosis. Single, vertical, unbranched burrows, cylindrical or subcylindrical, lined or unlined. Burrows perfectly straight to curved, sometimes inclined to the vertical. Diameter 1–15 mm; length from a few centimeters up to 1m; diameter may vary slightly along lenght of burrow (from Alpert, 1974).

Remarks. Ethologically, this is a dwelling or feeding trace. In the cases where it is found in marine environments, the possible producers are polychaetes or phoronids (Alpert, 1974; also see Sequeira Fernandes et al., 2002 and references therein). Skolithos appears in a variety of shallow marine environments; it has been documented from normal marine settings to lagoons, bays, mouth-bars and fluvial channels
(Uchman et al., 2004).

Schlirf & Uchman, 2005

DIAGNOSIS. Unbranched, vertical to steeply inclined, straight to slightly curved, cylindrical to subcylindrical, lined or unlined structures with or without funnel-shaped top. Wall distinct or indistinct, smooth to rough, some specimens annulated; fill massive; burrow diameter in some individualsslightly inconstant (Schlirf 2000).

Selection of related publications
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia. Bulletin of Geosciences 88, 2, 389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Vinn, O., Wilson, M. A. 2013. An event bed with abundant Skolithos burrows from the late Pridoli (Silurian) of Saaremaa (Estonia). Carnets de Géologie 13, 2, 83-87. DOI:10.4267/2042/49316
Bromley, R. G., Uchman, A. 2003. Trace fossils from the Lower and Middle Jurassic marginal-marine deposits of the Sorthat Formation, Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 52, 185-208.
Nielsen, J. K., Hansen, K. S., Simonsen, L. 1996. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Robbedale Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 43, 115-131.
Crimes, T. P. 1992. Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. Journal of the Geological Society 149, 4, 637-646. DOI:10.1144/gsjgs.149.4.0637
Troppenz, U.-M. 1989. Eine neue Skolithos-Art. Geschiebekunde aktuell 5, 1, 21-25.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 56, 1-2, 51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian. Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform, pp. 49-82.
Mens, K. A., Pirrus, E. A. 1977. Stratotypes of the Cambrian Formations of Estonia.
Müürisepp, K. 1958. Die Beshaffenheit der unteren Grenze der Packerort-Stufe von Packerort bis zum Sjass-Fluss. ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi uurimused III, 55-79. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused III, pp. 55-79.
Öpik, A. 1925. Beitrag zur Stratigraphie und Fauna des estnischen Unter-Kambriums (Eophyton-Sandstein). Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused , 3, 1-19.