Ichnofossils

Skolithos Haldeman, 1840

Taxon description

Fernández & Pazos, 2012

Diagnosis. Single, vertical, unbranched burrows, cylindrical or subcylindrical, lined or unlined. Burrows perfectly straight to curved, sometimes inclined to the vertical. Diameter 1–15 mm; length from a few centimeters up to 1m; diameter may vary slightly along lenght of burrow (from Alpert, 1974).

Remarks. Ethologically, this is a dwelling or feeding trace. In the cases where it is found in marine environments, the possible producers are polychaetes or phoronids (Alpert, 1974; also see Sequeira Fernandes et al., 2002 and references therein). Skolithos appears in a variety of shallow marine environments; it has been documented from normal marine settings to lagoons, bays, mouth-bars and fluvial channels
(Uchman et al., 2004).

Schlirf & Uchman, 2005

DIAGNOSIS. Unbranched, vertical to steeply inclined, straight to slightly curved, cylindrical to subcylindrical, lined or unlined structures with or without funnel-shaped top. Wall distinct or indistinct, smooth to rough, some specimens annulated; fill massive; burrow diameter in some individualsslightly inconstant (Schlirf 2000).

Selection of related publications
Vinn, O., Wilson, M. A. 2013. An event bed with abundant Skolithos burrows from the late Pridoli (Silurian) of Saaremaa (Estonia). Carnets de Géologie 13, 2, 83-87. DOI:10.4267/2042/49316
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia. Bulletin of Geosciences 88, 2, 389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Bromley, R. G., Uchman, A. 2003. Trace fossils from the Lower and Middle Jurassic marginal-marine deposits of the Sorthat Formation, Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 52, 185-208.
Nielsen, J. K., Hansen, K. S., Simonsen, L. 1996. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Robbedale Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Bornholm, Denmark. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 43, 115-131.
Crimes, T. P. 1992. Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. Journal of the Geological Society 149, 4, 637-646. DOI:10.1144/gsjgs.149.4.0637
Troppenz, U.-M. 1989. Eine neue Skolithos-Art. Geschiebekunde aktuell 5, 1, 21-25.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 56, 1-2, 51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian. Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform, pp. 49-82.
Mens, K. A., Pirrus, E. A. 1977. Stratotypes of the Cambrian Formations of Estonia.
Müürisepp, K. 1958. Die Beshaffenheit der unteren Grenze der Packerort-Stufe von Packerort bis zum Sjass-Fluss. ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi uurimused III, 55-79. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused III, pp. 55-79.
Öpik, A. 1925. Beitrag zur Stratigraphie und Fauna des estnischen Unter-Kambriums (Eophyton-Sandstein). Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 3, 1-19.