Ichnofossils
Genus

Skolithos Haldeman, 1840

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Taxon description

Fernández & Pazos, 2012

Diagnosis. Single, vertical, unbranched burrows, cylindrical or subcylindrical, lined or unlined. Burrows perfectly straight to curved, sometimes inclined to the vertical. Diameter 1–15 mm; length from a few centimeters up to 1m; diameter may vary slightly along lenght of burrow (from Alpert, 1974).

Remarks. Ethologically, this is a dwelling or feeding trace. In the cases where it is found in marine environments, the possible producers are polychaetes or phoronids (Alpert, 1974; also see Sequeira Fernandes et al., 2002 and references therein). Skolithos appears in a variety of shallow marine environments; it has been documented from normal marine settings to lagoons, bays, mouth-bars and fluvial channels
(Uchman et al., 2004).

Schlirf & Uchman, 2005

DIAGNOSIS. Unbranched, vertical to steeply inclined, straight to slightly curved, cylindrical to subcylindrical, lined or unlined structures with or without funnel-shaped top. Wall distinct or indistinct, smooth to rough, some specimens annulated; fill massive; burrow diameter in some individualsslightly inconstant (Schlirf 2000).

Selection of related publications
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia.Bulletin of Geosciences 88 , 2,389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Vinn, O., Wilson, M. A. 2013. An event bed with abundant Skolithos burrows from the late Pridoli (Silurian) of Saaremaa (Estonia).Carnets de Géologie 13 , 2,83-87. DOI:10.4267/2042/49316
Bromley, R. G., Uchman, A. 2003. Trace fossils from the Lower and Middle Jurassic marginal-marine deposits of the Sorthat Formation, Bornholm, Denmark.Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 50 , 2,185-208. DOI:10.37570/bgsd-2003-50-15
Mikuláš, R. 2000. Trace fossils from the Cambrian of the Barandian area (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic).Czech Geological Survey Special Paper 12 , 1-29.
Nielsen, J. K., Hansen, K. S., Simonsen, L. 1996. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Robbedale Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Bornholm, Denmark.Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 43 , 2,115-131. DOI:10.37570/bgsd-1996-43-12
Crimes, T. P. 1992. Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary.Journal of the Geological Society 149 , 4,637-646. DOI:10.1144/gsjgs.149.4.0637
Troppenz, U.-M. 1989. Eine neue Skolithos-Art.Geschiebekunde aktuell 5 , 1,21-25.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 56 , 1-2,51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian.Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform , pp. 49-82.
Mens, K. A., Pirrus, E. A. 1977. Stratotypes of the Cambrian Formations of Estonia.
Müürisepp, K. 1958. Die Beshaffenheit der unteren Grenze der Packerort-Stufe von Packerort bis zum Sjass-Fluss.ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi uurimused III , 55-80. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused III , pp. 55-80.
Öpik, A. 1925. Beitrag zur Stratigraphie und Fauna des estnischen Unter-Kambriums (Eophyton-Sandstein).Tartu Ülikooli Geoloogia Instituudi Toimetused 3 , 1-19.
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Classification
Organism groupBiota
Ichnofossil groupIchnofossils
Soft-sediment trace fossils
Trackways and scratch imprints
OrderBiformitidae
FamilyArenicolitidae
Arthrophycidae
Asteriacitidae
Rhizocoralliidae
Rosselichnidae
Siphonichnidae
GenusAcanthorhaphe
Aglaspidichnus
Agrichnium
Altichnus
Amanitichnus
Amphorichnus
Ancorichnus
Angulichnus
Arachnomorphichnus
Arachnostega
Arborichnus
Archaeonassa
Arcuatichnus
Arenituba
Artharia
Asaphoidichnus
Asterichnus
Asterosoma
Astropolichnus
Aulichnites
Avipeda
Avolatichnium
Balanoglossites
Baroccoichnites
Beaconites
Bergaueria
Bestiopeda
Bicavichnites
Bichordites
Bifasciculus
Bifungites
Bilinichnus
Bolonia
Bornichnus
Bunyerichnus
Calycraterion
Camborygma
Capodistria
Caprionichnius
Cardioichnus
Caridolites
Catenarichnus
Catenichnus
Chagrinichnites
Cheiichnus
Chomatichnus
Chondrites
Circulichnis
Cladichnus
Clematischnia
Climactichnites
Cochlichnus
Compaginatichnus
Conichnus
Conostichus
Cruziana
Ctenopholeus
Curvolithus
Cycloichnus
Cylindricum
Dactyloidites
Deliatynichnis
Dendrorhaphe
Dendrotichnium
Dictyodora
Didymaulichnus
Didymaulyponomos
Diplopodichnus
Echinospira
Egoreichnis
Elingua
Enigmatichnus
Entradichnus
Epibaion
Estrellichnus
Falcichnites
Fimbritubichnus
Foveichnus
Fucoides circinatus
Fuersichnus
Funalichnus
Furculosus
Fustiglyphus
Glossifungites
Glyphichnus
Gordia
Guanshanichnus
Gyrochorte
Gyrolithes
Gyrophyllites
Haentzschelinia
Halimedides
Halopoa
Hartsellea
Heimdallia
Helicodromites
Heliochone
Helminthoida
Helminthoidichnites
Helminthopsis
Herpystezoum
Hondichnus
Hormosiroidea
Ilmenichnus
Imponoglyphus
Isopodichnus
Jamesonichnites
Katbergia
Keilorites
Kimberichnus
Koptichnus
Korymbichnus
Kouphichnium
Labyrintichnus
Lajasichnus
Lamonte
Lanicoidichna
Lennea
Lepeichnus
Lepidenteron
Liholites
Lingulichnites
Lingulichnus
Lithoplaision
Lockeia
Loloichnus
Lophoctenium
Lorenzinia
Macaronichnus
Maiakarichnus
Mammillichnis
Margaritichnus
Megagrapton
Mermia
Microspherichnus
Minterichnus
Monocraterion
Monofungites
Multilamella
Multina
Multipodichnus
Musculopodus
Naviculichnium
Nenoxites
Neoeione
Neonereites
Nereites (trace fossil)
Nummipera
Oikobesalon
Oldhamia
Olenichnus
Oniscoidichnus
Ophiomorpha
Oravaichnium
Palaeophycus
Paleodictyon
Paracanthorhaphe
Parahaentzschelina
Parapsammichnites
Parataenidium
Paratisoa
Parmaichnus
Parundichnia
Pentichnus
Petalichnus
Phoebichnus
Pholeus
Phycosiphon
Pilichnus
Piscichnus
Plagiogmus
Plangtichnus
Planispiralichnus
Planolites
Polarichnus
Polykampton
Polykladichnus
Protopaleodictyon
Protospiralichnus
Protovirgularia
Psammichnites
Psilonichnus
Pteraspisichnis
Ptychoplasma
Radiichnus
Radionereites
Rhadhostium
Rotamedusa
Rusophycus
Saerichnites
Sagittichnus
Saportia
Scalaridomus
Schaubcylindrichnus
Scolecocoprus
Scolicia
Scotolithus
Scoyenia
Selenichnites
Shanwangichnus
Sinusichnus
Skolichnus
Skolithos
Speciesannulatus
bulbus
ingens
linearis
magnus
rotundus
verticalis
GenusSokolovichnites
Solemyatuba
Sphaerichnus
Spirocosmorhaphe
Spirodesmos
Spirophycus
Spongelimorpha
Squamichnus
Squamodictyon
Steinsfjordichnus
Stelloglyphus
Streptichnus
Sustergichnus
Svalbardichnus
Syringomorpha
Taenidium
Tambia
Taotieichnus
Taphrhelminthopsis
Taxichnites
Teichichnus
Ternavites
Tetraichnites
Thalassinoides
Torrowangea
Transexcrementum
Treptichnus
Triacliichnis
Trichichnus
Trichophycus
Trisulcus
Tuapseichnium
Tuberculichnus
Tubichnus
Tubotomaculum
Tylichnus
Undichna
Vagorichnus
Vermichnus
Virgaichnus
Volkichnium
Walcottia
Zoophycos
unrankedTrusheimichnus
References based on distribution