Ichnofossils
Genus

Palaeophycus Hall, 1847

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Taxon description

Domichnia.

Stachacz, 2012b

Diagnosis. Essentially cylindrical, predominantly horizontal, straight, slightly curved or undulating, ornamented or smooth, branched or un branched, lined burrow. Bifurcations irregular, with out swellings. Filling typically massive, similar to the host rock (compiled after: Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Fillion and Pickerill, 1984, 1990; Keighley and Pickerill, 1995).
 

Schlirf, 2000

Palaeophycus is generally interpreted as open burrow, probably produced by polychaetes (PEMBERTON & FREY, 1982).

Fernández & Pazos, 2012

Diagnosis. Infrequently branched, distinctly lined, essentially cylindrical, predominantly horizontal to inclined burrows in which the sediment infilling is typically of the same lithology and texture as the host bed (Pemberton and Frey, 1982; modified by Frey and Howard, 1985).

Remarks. It is ethologically classified as a dwelling (domichnia) or feeding (fodinichnia) structure of mobile, suspensivorous or predatory worm-like organisms such as annelids (Fillion, 1989). Sediment fill is passive, gravity induced (for further detail on sediment fill see Fillion, 1989). The common type of preservation (epirelief or endichnia) suggests that the activity of the producer took place along sedimentologic interfaces (Pemberton and Frey, 1982).

A similar ichnogenus is Planolites Nicholson, and there has been a longtime debate about the criteria used to separate them (Aceñolaza and Yanev, 2001). Alpert (1975) proposed that the most useful criterion is the presence or absence of branching in Palaeophycus and Planolites, respectively. However, since the work of Pemberton and Frey (1982), this criterion has been disregarded (e.g., Buatois, 1989; Fillion, 1989). According to Pemberton and Frey (1982), Palaeophycus differs from Planolites because of the presence of a wall.
Such features may be of greater taxonomic value, as they reveal ethological aspects (Buatois, 1989).

Díez-Canseco et al., 2016

Trace maker. Palaeophycus are known to be produced by predaceous polychaetes in marine environments (e.g., Gingras et al., 1999), but other makers may have been involved in continental settings, such as semiaquatic insects (orthopteransand hemipterans) or semiaquatic and non-aquatic beetles (Krapovickas et al., 2010).

Pemberton & Frey, 1982

Branched or unbranched, smooth or ornamented, lined, essentially cylindrical, predominantly horizontal burrows of variable diameter, infilling typically structurless or same lithology as host rock.

Selection of related publications
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia.Bulletin of Geosciences 88 , 2,389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Mikuláš R., Dronov, A. V. 2005. Trace fossils.6th Baltic Stratigraphical Conference, IGCP 503 Meeting, August 23-25, 2005. Cambrian and Ordovician of St. Petersburg region. Guidebook of the pre-conference field trip , pp. 33-38.
Knaust, D. 2004. Cambro-Ordovician trace fossils from the SW-Norwegian Caledonides.Geological Journal 39 , 1,1-24. DOI:10.1002/gj.941
Orłowski, S., Żylińska, A. 1996. Non-arthropod burrows from the Middle and Late Cambrian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 41 , 4,385-409.
Crimes, T. P. 1992. Changes in the trace fossil biota across the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary.Journal of the Geological Society 149 , 4,637-646. DOI:10.1144/gsjgs.149.4.0637
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 56 , 1-2,51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Eichwald, E. 1860. Lethaea Rossica ou Paléontologie de la Russie. Premier volume. Ancienne Période en deux sections. DOI:10.5962/bhl.title.52391
List of species
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Classification
Organism groupBiota
Ichnofossil groupIchnofossils
Soft-sediment trace fossils
Trackways and scratch imprints
OrderBiformitidae
FamilyArenicolitidae
Arthrophycidae
Asteriacitidae
Rhizocoralliidae
Rosselichnidae
Siphonichnidae
GenusAcanthorhaphe
Aglaspidichnus
Agrichnium
Altichnus
Amanitichnus
Amphorichnus
Ancorichnus
Angulichnus
Arachnomorphichnus
Arachnostega
Arborichnus
Archaeonassa
Arcuatichnus
Arenituba
Artharia
Asaphoidichnus
Asterichnus
Asterosoma
Astropolichnus
Aulichnites
Avipeda
Avolatichnium
Balanoglossites
Baroccoichnites
Beaconites
Bergaueria
Bestiopeda
Bicavichnites
Bichordites
Bifasciculus
Bifungites
Bilinichnus
Bolonia
Bornichnus
Bunyerichnus
Calycraterion
Camborygma
Capodistria
Caprionichnius
Cardioichnus
Caridolites
Catenarichnus
Catenichnus
Chagrinichnites
Cheiichnus
Chomatichnus
Chondrites
Circulichnis
Cladichnus
Clematischnia
Climactichnites
Cochlichnus
Compaginatichnus
Conichnus
Conostichus
Cruziana
Ctenopholeus
Curvolithus
Cycloichnus
Cylindricum
Dactyloidites
Deliatynichnis
Dendrorhaphe
Dendrotichnium
Dictyodora
Didymaulichnus
Didymaulyponomos
Diplopodichnus
Echinospira
Egoreichnis
Elingua
Enigmatichnus
Entradichnus
Epibaion
Estrellichnus
Falcichnites
Fimbritubichnus
Foveichnus
Fucoides circinatus
Fuersichnus
Funalichnus
Furculosus
Fustiglyphus
Glossifungites
Glyphichnus
Gordia
Guanshanichnus
Gyrochorte
Gyrolithes
Gyrophyllites
Haentzschelinia
Halimedides
Halopoa
Hartsellea
Heimdallia
Helicodromites
Heliochone
Helminthoida
Helminthoidichnites
Helminthopsis
Herpystezoum
Hondichnus
Hormosiroidea
Ilmenichnus
Imponoglyphus
Isopodichnus
Jamesonichnites
Katbergia
Keilorites
Kimberichnus
Koptichnus
Korymbichnus
Kouphichnium
Labyrintichnus
Lajasichnus
Lamonte
Lanicoidichna
Lennea
Lepeichnus
Lepidenteron
Liholites
Lingulichnites
Lingulichnus
Lithoplaision
Lockeia
Loloichnus
Lophoctenium
Lorenzinia
Macaronichnus
Maiakarichnus
Mammillichnis
Margaritichnus
Megagrapton
Mermia
Microspherichnus
Minterichnus
Monocraterion
Monofungites
Multilamella
Multina
Multipodichnus
Musculopodus
Naviculichnium
Nenoxites
Neoeione
Neonereites
Nereites (trace fossil)
Nummipera
Oikobesalon
Oldhamia
Olenichnus
Oniscoidichnus
Ophiomorpha
Oravaichnium
Palaeophycus
Speciesacicula
alternatus
bolbitermilus
crenulatus
ferrovittatus
gracilis
striatus
sulcatus
tubularis
vulgaris
GenusPaleodictyon
Paracanthorhaphe
Parahaentzschelina
Parapsammichnites
Parataenidium
Paratisoa
Parmaichnus
Parundichnia
Pentichnus
Petalichnus
Phoebichnus
Pholeus
Phycosiphon
Pilichnus
Piscichnus
Plagiogmus
Plangtichnus
Planispiralichnus
Planolites
Polarichnus
Polykampton
Polykladichnus
Protopaleodictyon
Protospiralichnus
Protovirgularia
Psammichnites
Psilonichnus
Pteraspisichnis
Ptychoplasma
Radiichnus
Radionereites
Rhadhostium
Rotamedusa
Rusophycus
Saerichnites
Sagittichnus
Saportia
Scalaridomus
Schaubcylindrichnus
Scolecocoprus
Scolicia
Scotolithus
Scoyenia
Selenichnites
Shanwangichnus
Sinusichnus
Skolichnus
Skolithos
Sokolovichnites
Solemyatuba
Sphaerichnus
Spirocosmorhaphe
Spirodesmos
Spirophycus
Spongelimorpha
Squamichnus
Squamodictyon
Steinsfjordichnus
Stelloglyphus
Streptichnus
Sustergichnus
Svalbardichnus
Syringomorpha
Taenidium
Tambia
Taotieichnus
Taphrhelminthopsis
Taxichnites
Teichichnus
Ternavites
Tetraichnites
Thalassinoides
Torrowangea
Transexcrementum
Treptichnus
Triacliichnis
Trichichnus
Trichophycus
Trisulcus
Tuapseichnium
Tuberculichnus
Tubichnus
Tubotomaculum
Tylichnus
Undichna
Vagorichnus
Vermichnus
Virgaichnus
Volkichnium
Walcottia
Zoophycos
unrankedTrusheimichnus
References based on distribution