Ichnofossils
Genus

Planolites Nicholson, 1873

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Taxon description

Uchman et al., 2005b

Planolites is a eurybathic, facies-crossing ichnogenus, which occurs from the Precambrian to the Recent (Häntzschel, 1975). It is referred to polyphyletic, vermiform deposit feeders producing active backfilling (e.g., Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Fillion and Pickerill, 1990).

Shahkarami et al., 2017a

Remark. Planolites is interpreted as feeding burrows (fodinichnia) of deposit-feeders (Pemberton and Frey, 1982), and ranges in age from Cambrian to Holocene (Häntzschel, 1975; Mángano and Buatois, 2014). Planolites is found in almost every depositional environment (Pemberton and Frey, 1982)

 

Stachacz, 2012b

Diagnosis. Unlined, rarely branched, straight or tortuous, smooth surface, irregular or annulated, circular or elliptical in cross-section, of variable dimensions and configuration; homogeneous, structureless in fillings of burrows, differing in lithology from the host rock (Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Stanley and Pickerill,1998).

Díez-Canseco et al., 2016

Ethology and tracemaker.—Planolites is a feeding structure (fodinichnion) interpreted as produced by deposit-feeding vermiform organisms that actively fill their burrows (Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Fillion and Pickerill, 1990; Uchman, 1995).

Frey & Bromley, 1985

Diagnosis: Relatively large, unlined, smooth-walled, horizontal to undulant, straight to sinuous cylindrical burrows; fills typically differ in color from surrounding sediments.

Pemberton & Frey, 1982

Straight to slightly or markedly undulose and meandrous, rarely branched, cylindrical or subcylindrical or irregularly developed, unlined burrows, walls smooth to transversely or obliquely annulate. Dimensions commonly vary within given specimens. Branching, where present, exibits no particular patten; nor dos overall burrow configuration, other than a tendency toward horizontal expansion. Individual segments may be parallel, inclined, or normal bedding. Small burrows, and larger ones where crowded, tend to be more highly curved or tortuous than uncrowded large burrows; where burrows are dense, crossovers, interpenetrations, and reburrowed segments are common. Burrow fills are structureless, except for comparatively rare, poorly developed bacfills, and consist or sediments lithologically different from the host matrix. Preserved as endichnia, hypichnial ridges and epivhnial grooves.

Selection of related publications
Toom, U., Vinn, O., Hints, O. 2019. Ordovician and Silurian ichnofossils from carbonate facies in Estonia: A collection-based review.Palaeoworld 28 , 1-2,123-144. DOI:10.1016/j.palwor.2018.07.001
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia.Bulletin of Geosciences 88 , 2,389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Landing, E., Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G., Moczydlowska-Vidal, M. 2007. Global standard names for the Lowermost Cambrian Series and Stage.Episodes 30 , 4,287-289. DOI:10.18814/epiiugs/2007/v30i4/004
Mikuláš R., Dronov, A. V. 2005. Trace fossils.6th Baltic Stratigraphical Conference, IGCP 503 Meeting, August 23-25, 2005. Cambrian and Ordovician of St. Petersburg region. Guidebook of the pre-conference field trip , pp. 33-38.
Knaust, D. 2004. Cambro-Ordovician trace fossils from the SW-Norwegian Caledonides.Geological Journal 39 , 1,1-24. DOI:10.1002/gj.941
Orłowski, S., Żylińska, A. 1996. Non-arthropod burrows from the Middle and Late Cambrian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 41 , 4,385-409.
Kowalski, W. R. 1987. Trace fossils of the Upper Vendian and lowermost Cambrian in southern Poland.Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences 35 , 1,21–32.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 56 , 1-2,51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian.Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform , pp. 49-82.
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Classification
Organism groupBiota
Ichnofossil groupIchnofossils
Soft-sediment trace fossils
Trackways and scratch imprints
OrderBiformitidae
FamilyArenicolitidae
Arthrophycidae
Asteriacitidae
Rhizocoralliidae
Rosselichnidae
Siphonichnidae
GenusAcanthorhaphe
Aglaspidichnus
Agrichnium
Altichnus
Amanitichnus
Amphorichnus
Ancorichnus
Angulichnus
Arachnomorphichnus
Arachnostega
Arborichnus
Archaeonassa
Arcuatichnus
Arenituba
Artharia
Asaphoidichnus
Asterichnus
Asterosoma
Astropolichnus
Aulichnites
Avipeda
Avolatichnium
Balanoglossites
Baroccoichnites
Beaconites
Bergaueria
Bestiopeda
Bicavichnites
Bichordites
Bifasciculus
Bifungites
Bilinichnus
Bolonia
Bornichnus
Bunyerichnus
Calycraterion
Camborygma
Capodistria
Caprionichnius
Cardioichnus
Caridolites
Catenarichnus
Catenichnus
Chagrinichnites
Cheiichnus
Chomatichnus
Chondrites
Circulichnis
Cladichnus
Clematischnia
Climactichnites
Cochlichnus
Compaginatichnus
Conichnus
Conostichus
Cruziana
Ctenopholeus
Curvolithus
Cycloichnus
Cylindricum
Dactyloidites
Deliatynichnis
Dendrorhaphe
Dendrotichnium
Dictyodora
Didymaulichnus
Didymaulyponomos
Diplopodichnus
Echinospira
Egoreichnis
Elingua
Enigmatichnus
Entradichnus
Epibaion
Estrellichnus
Falcichnites
Fimbritubichnus
Foveichnus
Fucoides circinatus
Fuersichnus
Funalichnus
Furculosus
Fustiglyphus
Glossifungites
Glyphichnus
Gordia
Guanshanichnus
Gyrochorte
Gyrolithes
Gyrophyllites
Haentzschelinia
Halimedides
Halopoa
Hartsellea
Heimdallia
Helicodromites
Heliochone
Helminthoida
Helminthoidichnites
Helminthopsis
Herpystezoum
Hondichnus
Hormosiroidea
Ilmenichnus
Imponoglyphus
Isopodichnus
Jamesonichnites
Katbergia
Keilorites
Kimberichnus
Koptichnus
Korymbichnus
Kouphichnium
Labyrintichnus
Lajasichnus
Lamonte
Lanicoidichna
Lennea
Lepeichnus
Lepidenteron
Liholites
Lingulichnites
Lingulichnus
Lithoplaision
Lockeia
Loloichnus
Lophoctenium
Lorenzinia
Macaronichnus
Maiakarichnus
Mammillichnis
Margaritichnus
Megagrapton
Mermia
Microspherichnus
Minterichnus
Monocraterion
Monofungites
Multilamella
Multina
Multipodichnus
Musculopodus
Naviculichnium
Nenoxites
Neoeione
Neonereites
Nereites (trace fossil)
Nummipera
Oikobesalon
Oldhamia
Olenichnus
Oniscoidichnus
Ophiomorpha
Oravaichnium
Palaeophycus
Paleodictyon
Paracanthorhaphe
Parahaentzschelina
Parapsammichnites
Parataenidium
Paratisoa
Parmaichnus
Parundichnia
Pentichnus
Petalichnus
Phoebichnus
Pholeus
Phycosiphon
Pilichnus
Piscichnus
Plagiogmus
Plangtichnus
Planispiralichnus
Planolites
Speciesannularius
ballandus
betechtinae
beverleyensis
constriannulatus
makarovae
montanus
nematus
priapus
reinecki
reticulatus
serpens
terranovae
vialovi
virgatus
GenusPolarichnus
Polykampton
Polykladichnus
Protopaleodictyon
Protospiralichnus
Protovirgularia
Psammichnites
Psilonichnus
Pteraspisichnis
Ptychoplasma
Radiichnus
Radionereites
Rhadhostium
Rotamedusa
Rusophycus
Saerichnites
Sagittichnus
Saportia
Scalaridomus
Schaubcylindrichnus
Scolecocoprus
Scolicia
Scotolithus
Scoyenia
Selenichnites
Shanwangichnus
Sinusichnus
Skolichnus
Skolithos
Sokolovichnites
Solemyatuba
Sphaerichnus
Spirocosmorhaphe
Spirodesmos
Spirophycus
Spongelimorpha
Squamichnus
Squamodictyon
Steinsfjordichnus
Stelloglyphus
Streptichnus
Sustergichnus
Svalbardichnus
Syringomorpha
Taenidium
Tambia
Taotieichnus
Taphrhelminthopsis
Taxichnites
Teichichnus
Ternavites
Tetraichnites
Thalassinoides
Torrowangea
Transexcrementum
Treptichnus
Triacliichnis
Trichichnus
Trichophycus
Trisulcus
Tuapseichnium
Tuberculichnus
Tubichnus
Tubotomaculum
Tylichnus
Undichna
Vagorichnus
Vermichnus
Virgaichnus
Volkichnium
Walcottia
Zoophycos
unrankedTrusheimichnus
References based on distribution