Planolites Nicholson, 1873

Taxon description

Shahkarami et al., 2017a

Remark. Planolites is interpreted as feeding burrows (fodinichnia) of deposit-feeders (Pemberton and Frey, 1982), and ranges in age from Cambrian to Holocene (Häntzschel, 1975; Mángano and Buatois, 2014). Planolites is found in almost every depositional environment (Pemberton and Frey, 1982)


Díez-Canseco et al., 2016

Ethology and tracemaker.—Planolites is a feeding structure (fodinichnion) interpreted as produced by deposit-feeding vermiform organisms that actively fill their burrows (Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Fillion and Pickerill, 1990; Uchman, 1995).

Stachacz, 2012b

Diagnosis. Unlined, rarely branched, straight or tortuous, smooth surface, irregular or annulated, circular or elliptical in cross-section, of variable dimensions and configuration; homogeneous, structureless in fillings of burrows, differing in lithology from the host rock (Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Stanley and Pickerill,1998).

Uchman et al., 2005b

Planolites is a eurybathic, facies-crossing ichnogenus, which occurs from the Precambrian to the Recent (Häntzschel, 1975). It is referred to polyphyletic, vermiform deposit feeders producing active backfilling (e.g., Pemberton and Frey, 1982; Fillion and Pickerill, 1990).

Frey & Bromley, 1985

Diagnosis: Relatively large, unlined, smooth-walled, horizontal to undulant, straight to sinuous cylindrical burrows; fills typically differ in color from surrounding sediments.

Pemberton & Frey, 1982

Straight to slightly or markedly undulose and meandrous, rarely branched, cylindrical or subcylindrical or irregularly developed, unlined burrows, walls smooth to transversely or obliquely annulate. Dimensions commonly vary within given specimens. Branching, where present, exibits no particular patten; nor dos overall burrow configuration, other than a tendency toward horizontal expansion. Individual segments may be parallel, inclined, or normal bedding. Small burrows, and larger ones where crowded, tend to be more highly curved or tortuous than uncrowded large burrows; where burrows are dense, crossovers, interpenetrations, and reburrowed segments are common. Burrow fills are structureless, except for comparatively rare, poorly developed bacfills, and consist or sediments lithologically different from the host matrix. Preserved as endichnia, hypichnial ridges and epivhnial grooves.

Selection of related publications
Toom, U., Vinn, O., Hints, O. 2019. Ordovician and Silurian ichnofossils from carbonate facies in Estonia: A collection-based review. Palaeoworld 28, 1-2, 123-144. DOI:10.1016/j.palwor.2018.07.001
Mikuláš, R., Meškis, S., Ivanov, A., Lukševičs, E., Zupinš, I., Stinkulis, G. 2013. A rich ichnofossil assemblage from the Frasnian (Upper Devonian) deposits at Andoma Hill, Onega Lake, Russia. Bulletin of Geosciences 88, 2, 389-400. DOI:10.3140/bull.geosci.1358
Landing, E., Peng, S., Babcock, L. E., Geyer, G., Moczydlowska-Vidal, M. 2007. Global standard names for the Lowermost Cambrian Series and Stage. Episodes 30, 4, 287-289. DOI:10.18814/epiiugs/2007/v30i4/004
Mikuláš R., Dronov, A. V. 2005. Trace fossils. 6th Baltic Stratigraphical Conference, IGCP 503 Meeting, August 23-25, 2005. Cambrian and Ordovician of St. Petersburg region. Guidebook of the pre-conference field trip, pp. 33-38.
Knaust, D. 2004. Cambro-Ordovician trace fossils from the SW-Norwegian Caledonides. Geological Journal 39, 1, 1-24. DOI:10.1002/gj.941
Orłowski, S., Żylińska, A. 1996. Non-arthropod burrows from the Middle and Late Cambrian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 41, 4, 385-409.
Clausen, C. K., Vilhjálmsson, M. 1986. Substrate control of lower Cambrian trace fossils from Bornholm, Denmark. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 56, 1-2, 51-68. DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(86)90107-0
Palij, V. M., Posti, E., Fedonkin, M. A. 1979. Soft-bodied Metazoa and trace fossils of Vendian and Lower Cambrian. Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Paleontology of East-European Platform, pp. 49-82.